Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder
While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism, doubts of child competency, over-control, and granting of autonomy) in anxious parents with (n = 21) and without (n = 45) social anxiety disorder (SAD) during a 5-minute task with their non-anxious child (aged 7–12 years, M = 9.14). Parents with SAD demonstrated less warmth/positive affect and more criticism and doubts of child competency than did those without SAD. There were no group differences in over-control or granting of autonomy. Findings help clarify inconsistent results in the literature, inform models of familial transmission, and suggest intervention targets for parents with SAD.
KeywordsSocial anxiety disorder Parenting behaviors Etiology
This study was supported by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health (K23MH63427 and R01MH077312) awarded to Golda S. Ginsburg, PhD.
- 20.Hudson JL, Rapee RM (2004) From anxious temperament to disorder: an etiological model of generalized anxiety disorder. In: Heimberg RG, Turk CL, Mennin DS (eds) Generalized anxiety disorder: advances in research and practice. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 23.Brown TA, DiNardo PA, Barlow DH (1994) Anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV. Graywind, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 25.Silverman WK, Albano AM (1996) The anxiety disorders interview schedule for children for DSM-IV: (Child and parent versions). Psychological Corporation, San AntonioGoogle Scholar
- 26.Silverman WK, Saavedra LM, Pina AA (2001) Test-retest reliability of anxiety symptoms and diagnoses with the anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV: child and parent versions. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40(8):937–944. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200108000-00016 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Ginsburg GS, Grover RL (2007) Coding manual for parent-child interactions. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
- 35.Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
- 39.Bowlby J (1983) Attachment. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 42.Schneider S, Houweling JE, Gommlich-Schneider S, Klein C, Nundel B, Wolke, D (2009) Effect of maternal panic disorder on mother-child interaction and relation to child anxiety and child self-efficacy. Arch Womens Ment Health 12(4):251–259Google Scholar
- 43.Parker G, Roussos J, Hadzi-Pavlovic D, Mitchell P, Wilhelm K, Austin MP (1997) The development of a refined measure of dysfunctional parenting and assessment of its relevance in patients with affective disorders. Psychol Med 27(5):1193–1203. doi: 10.1017/S003329179700545X PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 45.Parker G (1983) Parental overprotection: a risk factor in psychosocial development. Grune and Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar