Child Psychiatry & Human Development

, Volume 43, Issue 5, pp 795–820 | Cite as

Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

  • Bogdan T. Tulbure
  • Aurora Szentagotai
  • Anca Dobrean
  • Daniel David
Review Paper

Abstract

Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash’s evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social anxiety scales for children and adolescents were identified. An overview about the scientific support accumulated by these scales is offered. Our main results are consistent with recent reviews that consider the Social Phobia and Anxiety Scale for Children (SPAI-C) and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) among the most pertinent and empirically supported measures of social anxiety for youngsters. However, after considering the existing evidence, we highly recommend another couple of scales that proved to be empirically supported (i.e., the Social Phobia InventorySPIN, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and AdolescentsLSAS-CA).

Keywords

Social anxiety disorder/social phobia Evidence-based assessment Children and adolescents Rating-scale Questionnaire 

References

Note: References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in this literature-review.

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. DSM-IV, BucurestiGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rao PA, Beidel DC, Turner SM, Ammerman RT, Crosby LR, Sallee FR (2007) Social anxiety disorder in childhood and adolescence: Descriptive psychopathology. Behav Res Ther 45:1181–1191. doi:101016/jbrat200607015 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beidel DC, Turner SM, Morris T (1999) Psychopathology of childhood social phobia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatr 38:643–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khalid-Khan S, Santibanez M, McMicken C, Rynn M (2007) Social anxiety disorder in children and adolescents: epidemiology diagnosis and treatment. Paediatr Drugs 9:227–237 doi:1174-5878/07/0004-0227 Retrieved from http://wwwadolescenciasemaorg/ficheros/26345886pdf Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beidel DC, Turner SM (2007) Shy children, phobic adults—nature and treatment of social anxiety disorder, 2nd edn. American Psychological Association, Washington DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hunsley J, Mash EJ (2008) A guide to assessments that work. Oxford Univ Press, NYGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mash EJ, Hunsley J (2005) Evidence-based assessment of child and adolescent disorders: Issues and challenges. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 34:362–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Achenbach ThM (2005) Advancing assessment of children and adolescents: commentary on evidence-based assessment of child and adolescent disorders. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 34:541–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Antony MM, Rowa K (2005) Evidence-based assessment of anxiety disorders in adults. Psychol Assess 17:256–266. doi:101037/1040-3590173256 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barlow D (2005) What’s new about evidence-based assessment? Psychol Assess 17:308–311. doi:101037/1040-3590173308 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Velting O, Setzer N, Albano A (2004) Update on the advances in assessment and Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Prof Psychol Res Pract 35:42–54. doi:101037/0735-702835142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kazdin A (2005) Evidence-based assessment for children and adolescents: issues in measurement development and clinical application. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 34:548–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Balon R (2005) Measuring anxiety: are we getting what we need? Depress Anxiety 22:1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Clark DB, Feske U, Masia C, Spaulding S, Brown C, Mammen O, Shear K (1997) Systematic assessment of social phobia in clinical practice. Depress Anxiety 6:47–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brooks S, Kutcher S (2003) Diagnosis and measurement of anxiety disorder in adolescents: A review of commonly used instruments. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 13:351–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Klein DN, Dougherty LR, Olino ThM (2005) Toward guidelines for evidence-based assessment of depression in children and adolescents. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 34:412–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Silverman WK, Ollendick ThH (2005) Evidence-based assessment of anxiety and its disorder in children and adolescents. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 34:380–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Person JB, Fresco DM (2008) Adult depression. In: Hunsley J, Mash EJ (eds) A guide to assessments that work. Oxford Univ Press, NY, pp 96–120Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Silverman WK, Ollendick ThH (2008) Child and adolescent anxiety disorders. In: Hunsley J, Mash EJ (eds) A guide to assessments that work. Oxford Univ Press, NY, pp 181–206Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Matson JL, Wilkins J (2009) Psychometric testing methods for children’s social skills. Res Dev Disabil 30:249–274. doi:101016/jridd200804002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Essau CA, Conradt J, Petermann F (1999) Frequency and comorbidity of social phobia and social fears in adolescents. Behav Res Ther 37:831–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kearney CA (2005) Social anxiety and social phobia in youth Characteristics assessment and psychological treatment. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    *Turner SM, Beidel DC, Dancu CV, Stamley MA (1989) An empirically derived inventory to measure social fears and anxiety: the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Psychol Assess J Consult Clin Psychol 1:35–40Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goldfried MR, D’Zurilla TJ (1969) A behavioral analytic model for assessing competence in CD Spilberger (Ed.). Current topics in clinical psychology (pp 151-196) NY Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    *Olivares J, Garcia-Lopez LJ, Hidalgo MD, Turner SM, Beidel DC (1999) The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory: reliability and validity in an adolescent spanish population. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 21:67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    *Olivares J, Vera-Villarroel P, Rosa-Alcazar AI, Kuhne W, Montesinos L, Lopez-Pina JA (2010) The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory: first results of the reliability and structural validity in chilean adolescents. Universitas Psychologica 9:149–160Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    *Beidel DC, Turner SM, Morris T (1995) A new inventory to assess childhood social anxiety and phobia—the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for children. Psychol Assess 7:73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    *Gauer GJC, Picon P, Vasconcellos SJL, Turner SM, Beidel DC (2005) Validation of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI-C) in a sample of Brazilian children. Bras J Med Biol Res 38:795–800 Retreived from http://www.scielobr/pdf/bjmbr/v38n5/5446pdf Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    *Aune T, Stiles T, Svarva K (2008) Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children using a non-American population-based sample. J Anxiety Disord 22:1075–1086. doi:101016/jjanxdis200711006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    *Kuusikko S, Pollock-Wurman R, Ebeling H, Hurting T, Joskitt L, Mattila M-L, Jussila K, Moilanen I (2009) Psychometric evaluation of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for children (SPAI-C) and social anxiety scale for children revised (SASC-R). Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatr 18:116–124. doi:101007/s00787-008-0712-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    *Olivares J, Sanchez-Garcia R, Lopez-Pina JA, Rosa-Alcazar AI (2010a) Psychometric proprieties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children in a Spanish sample. Span J Psychol 13:961–969 Retrieved from http://www ucmes/info/psi/docs/journal/v13_n2_2010/art961pdfGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    *Melfsen S, Kühnemund M, Schwieger J, Warnke A, Stadler C, Poustka F, Stangier U (2011) Cognitive behavioral therapy of socially phobic children focusing on cognition: a randomized wait-list control study. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Ment Health 5:5 Retrieved from http://www.capmhcom/content/pdf/1753-2000-5-5pdf
  33. 33.
    *La Greca AM, Stone WL (1993) Social anxiety scale for children-revised: factor structure and concurrent validity. J Clin Child Psychol 22:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Watson D, Friend R (1969) Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety. J Consult Clin Psychol 33:448–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    *Kristensen H, Torgensen S (2006) Social anxiety disorder in 11–12-year-old children—the efficacy of screening and issues in parent-child agreement. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatr 15:163–171. doi:101007/s00787-005-0519-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    *La Greca AM, Lopez N (1998) Social anxiety among adolescents: linkages with peer relations and friendships. J Abnorm Child Psychol 26:83–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    *Garcia-Lopez LJ, Olivares J, Hidalgo MD, Beidel DC, Turner SM (2001) Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory the social anxiety scale for adolescents the fear of negative evaluation scale and the social avoidance and distress scale in an adolescent spanish-speaking sample. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 23:51–59 Retrieved from http://www.4ujaenes/~ ljgarcia/investig_archivos/Psycpropertpdf Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    *Zhou X, Xu Q, Inglés CJ, Hidalgo MD, La Greca AM (2008) Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the social anxiety scale for adolescents. Child Psychiatr Hum Dev 39:185–200. doi:101007/s10578-007-0079-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    *Memik NK, Sismanlar SG, Yildiz O, Karakaya I, Isik C, Agaoglu B (2010) Social anxiety level in Turkish adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatr 19:765–772. doi:101007/s00787-010-0119-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    *Connor K, Davidson J, Chirchill E, Sherwood A, Foa E, Weisler R (2000) Psychometric proprieties of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN)-a new self rating scale. Br J Psychiatr 176:379–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    *Vilete L, Figueira I, Coutinho E (2006) Portuguese-language cross-cultural adaptation of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) to be used with adolescent students. Revista de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul 28:40–48. doi:101590/S0101-81082006000100006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    *Ranta K, Kaltiala-Heino R, Koivisto AM, Tuomisto MT, Polkonen M, Marttunen M (2007) Age and gender differences in social anxiety symptoms during adolescence: the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) as a measure. Psychiatry Res 153:261–270. doi:101016/jpsychres200612006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    *Sosic Z, Gieler U, Stangier U (2008) Screening for social phobia in medical in- and outpatients with the German version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). J Anxiety Disord 22:849–859. doi:101016/jjanxdis200708001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    *Tsai CF, Wang SJ, Juang KD, Fuh JL (2009) Use of the Chinese (Taiwan) version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) among early adolescents in rural areas: reliability and validity study. J Chin Med Assoc 72:422–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    *Garcia-Lopez LJ, Bermejo RM, Hidalgo MD (2010) The Social Phobia Inventory: screening and cross-cultural validation in spanish adolescents. Span J Psychol 13:970–980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    *Masia-Warner C, Storch E, Pincus D, Klein R, Heinberg R, Leibowitz MR (2003) The Leibowitz social anxiety scale for children and adolescents: an initial psychometric investigation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatr 42:1076–1084. doi:101097/01CHI00000702492412589 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    *Zubeidat I, Salinas JM, Sierra JC (2008) Exploration of the psychometric characteristics of the Liebowitz social anxiety scale in a Spanish adolescent sample. Depress Anxiety 25:977–987. doi:101002/da20404 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    *Mattick RP, Clarke C (1998) Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behav Res Ther 36:455–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    *Zubeidat I, Salinas JM, Sierra JC, Fernandez-Parra C (2007) Psychometric proprieties of social interaction anxiety scale and separation criterion between Spanish youth with and without subtypes of social anxiety. J Anxiety Disord 21:603–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    *Puklek-Levpuscek M, Vidmar G (2000) Social anxiety in Slovene adolescents: psychometric proprieties of a new measure age differences and relation with self-consciousness and perceived incompetence. Eur Rev Appl Psychol 50:249–258Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    *Moore KA, Gee DL (2003) The reliability validity discriminant and predictive proprieties of the Social Phobia Inventory (SoPhI). Anxiety Stress Coping 16:109–117. doi:101080/1061580021000057068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    *Bermejo R, Garcia-Lopez LJ, Hidalgo M, Moore K (2011) The Social Phobia Inventory (SoPhI): validity and reliability in adolescent population. Anales de Psicologia 27:333–341 Retrieved from http://www.revistasumes/analesps/article/view/122961/115591
  53. 53.
    Brooks S, Kutcher S (2004) The kutcher generalized social anxiety disorder scale for adolescents: assessment of its evaluative properties over the course of a 16-week pediatric psychopharmacotherapy trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:273–286. doi:101089/1044546041649002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    *Wagner K, Berard R, Stein M, Wetherhold E, Carpenter D, Perera P, Gee M, Davy K, Machin A (2004) A multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine in children and adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Arch General Psychiatr 61:1153–1162 Retrieved from www archgenpsychiatrycomGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    *Ingles C, Hidalgo M, Mendez F (2005) Interpersonal difficulties in adolescence: a new self-report measure. Eur J Psychol Assess 21:11–22. doi:101027//1015-575921111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    *Ingles C, Marzo JC, Hidalgo M, Zhou X, García-Fernández J (2008) Factorial invariance of the questionnaire about interpersonal difficulties for adolescents across Spanish and Chinese adolescent samples. Meas Eval Couns Dev 41:89–103Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    *Zupancic M, Ingles CS, Bajec B, Levpuscek MP (2011) Reliability and validity evidence of scores on the Slovene version of the questionnaire about interpersonal difficulties for adolescents. Child Psychiatr Hum Dev. doi:101007/s10578-011-0218-5 Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    *Cunha M, Gouveia J, Salvador M (2008) Social fears in adolescence: The Social Anxiety and Avoidance Scale for Adolescennce. Eur Psychol 13:197–213. doi:101027/1016-9040133197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    *Gren-Landell M, Bjorklind A, Tillfors M, Furmark T, Svedin CG, Andersson G (2009) Evaluation of the psychometric proprieties of a modified version of the social phobia screening questionnaire for use in adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Mental Health 3:36. doi:1011861753-2000-3-36 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    *Clark DB, Turner SM, Beidel DC, Donovan JE, Kirisci L, Jacob RG (1994) Reliability and validity of the Social Phobia Inventory for adolescents. Psychol Assess 6:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    *Garcia-Lopez LJ, Olivares J, Beidel DC, Albano AM, Turner SM, Rosa AI (2006) Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment. J Anxiety Disord 20:175–191. doi:101016/jjanxdis200711006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    *Olivares J, García-López LJ, Hidalgo MD, La Greca AM, Turner SM, Beidel DC (2002) A pilot study on normative data for two social anxiety measures: the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory and the social anxiety scale for adolescents. Int J Clin Health Psychol 2:467–476Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    *Epkins CC (2002) A comparison of two self-report measures of children’s social anxiety in clinic and community samples. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 31:69–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    *Viana A, Rabian B, Beidel DC (2008) Self-report measures in the study of comorbidity in children and adolescents with social phobia: Research and clinical utility. J Anxiety Disord 22:781–792. doi:101016/jjanxdis200708005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    *Storch EA, Masia-Warner C, Heidgerken AD, Fisher PH, Pincus DB, Liebowitz MR (2006) Factor structure of the liebowitz social anxiety scale for children and adolescents. Child Psychiatr Hum Dev 37:25–37. doi:101007/s10578-006-0017-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    *Inderbitzen-Nolan HM, Davies CA, McKeon ND (2004) Investigating the construct validity of the SPAI-C: comparing the sensitivity and specificity of the SPAI-C and the SAS-A. J Anxiety Disord 18:547–560. doi:101016/S0877(03)00042-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    *Ginsburg GS, La Greca AM, Silverman W (1998) Social anxiety in children with anxiety disorders: Relation with social and emotional functioning. J Abnorm Child Psychol 26:175–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    *Myers MG, Stein MB, Aarons GA (2002) Cross validation of the social anxiety scale for adolescents in a high school sample. J Anxiety Disord 16:221–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    *Olivares J, García-López LJ, Hidalgo MD, Caballo V (2004) Relationship among social anxiety measures and their invariance: a confirmatory factor analysis. Eur J Psychol Assess 20:172–179. doi:101027/1015-5759203172 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    *Johnson HS, Inderbitzen-Nolan HM, Anderson ER (2006) The Social Phobia Inventory: validity and reliability in an adolescent community sample. Psychol Assess 18:269–277. doi:101037/1040-3590183269 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    *Ranta K, Kaltiala-Heino R, Rantanen P, Tuomisto MT, Marttunen M (2007) Screening social phobia in adolescents from general population: the validity of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) against a clinical interview. Eur Psychiatr 22:244–251. doi:101016/jeurpsy200612002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    *Beidel DC, Turner SM, Morris T (2000) Behavioral treatment of childhood social phobia. J Consult Clin Psychol 68:1072–1080. doi:101037/0022-006X6861072 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    *Beidel DC, Turner SM, Young B, Paulson A (2005) Social effectiveness therapy for children: three-year follow-up. J Consult Clin Psychol 73:721–725. doi:101037/0022-006X734721 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    *Beidel DC, Turner SM, Young B (2006) Social effectiveness therapy for children: five years latter. Behav Ther 37:416–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    *Masia-Warner C, Klein RG, Dent HC, Ficher PH, Alvir J, Albano AM, Guardino M (2005) School-based intervention for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: results of a controlled study. J Abnorm Child Psychol 33(6):707–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    *Masia-Warner C, Ficher PH, Shrout PE, Rathor S, Klein RG (2007) Treating adolescents with social anxiety disorder in school: an attention control trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 48:676–686. doi:101111/j1469-7610200701737x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    *Aune T, Stiles T (2009) Universal-based prevention of syndromal and subsybdromal social anxiety: a randomized controlled study. J Consult Clin Psychol 77:867–879. doi:101037/a0015813 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    *Ferrell CB, Beidel DC, Turner SM (2004) Assessment and treatment of socially phobic children-a cross cultural comparison. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 33:260–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    *Gallagher HM, Rabian BA, McCloskey MS (2004) A brief group cognitive-behavioral intervention for social phobia in childhood. J Anxiety Disord 18:459–479. doi:101016/S0887-6185(03)00027-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    *Herbert JD, Gaudiano BA, Reingold AA, Moitra E, Myers VH, Dalrymple KL, Brandsma LL (2009) Cognitive behavior therapy for generalized social anxiety disorder in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. J Anxiety Disord 23:167–177. doi:101016/jjanxdis200806004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    *Olivares J, Beidel DC, Turner SM, Albano AM, Hidalgo MD (2002b) Results at long term among three psychological treatments for adolescents with generalized social phobia (I): statistical significance. Psicologia Conductal 10:147–164 Retrieved from http://www 4ujaenes/~ljgarcia/investig_archivos/tesis1pdfGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    *Sanchez-Garcia R, Olivares J (2009) Effectiveness of a program for early detection/intervention in children/adolescents with generalized social phobia. Anales de Psicologia 25:241–249 Retreived from http://www.revistasumes/analesps/article/view/87521/84281
  83. 83.
    *Garcia-Lopez LJ, Olivares J, Turner SM, Beidel DC, Albano AM, Sanchez-Meca J (2002) Results at long-term among three psychological treatments for adolescents with generalized social phobia (II): clinical significance and effect size. Psicologia Conductal 10:371–385 Retrieved from http://www.4ujaenes/~ljgarcia/investig_archivos/tesis2pdf Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rowa K, McCabe RE, Antony M (2008) Specific phobia and social phobia. In: Hunsley J, Mash EJ (eds) A guide to assessments that work. Oxford Univ Press, NY, pp 207–228Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    *Ingles C, La Greca AM, Marzo J, Garcia-Lopez LJ (2010) Social anxiety scale for adolescents: factorial invariance and latent mean differences across gender and age in spanish adolescents. J Anxiety Disord 24:847–855. doi:101016/jjanxdis201006007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bogdan T. Tulbure
    • 1
  • Aurora Szentagotai
    • 2
  • Anca Dobrean
    • 1
  • Daniel David
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Psychology and PsychotherapyBabeş-Bolyai UniversityCluj-NapocaRomania
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyBabeş-Bolyai UniversityCluj-NapocaRomania

Personalised recommendations