Child Psychiatry & Human Development

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 153–170 | Cite as

Predicting Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Five Years by Child and Parental Factors in Infancy and Toddlerhood

  • Mirjami Mäntymaa
  • Kaija Puura
  • Ilona Luoma
  • Reija Latva
  • Raili K. Salmelin
  • Tuula Tamminen
Original Article

Abstract

This study examined child and parental factors in infancy and toddlerhood predicting subclinical or clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years of age. Ninety-six children and their families participated. They were assessed when the children were 4–10 weeks old (T1), 2 years (T2) and 5 years old (T3). Child risks (difficult temperament, health problems, early emotional and behavioral problems), parental risks (psychopathology, parenting stress and perception of the child) and family risks (socio-economic status, quality of marital relationship and family violence) were examined. At 5 years, internalizing problems were predicted by family violence during the child’s infancy and parenting stress at age 2. Externalizing problems were predicted by psychiatric problems of the mother before pregnancy and child’s externalizing problems at 2 years of age. When interventions aiming at preventing emotional and behavioral problems in children are considered, these issues should be recognized early and effective intervention initiated.

Keywords

Internalizing problems Externalizing problems Children Predicting 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirjami Mäntymaa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kaija Puura
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ilona Luoma
    • 2
    • 1
  • Reija Latva
    • 2
    • 1
  • Raili K. Salmelin
    • 3
    • 2
  • Tuula Tamminen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Tampere, School of MedicineTampereFinland
  2. 2.Department of Child PsychiatryTampere University HospitalTampereFinland
  3. 3.University of Tampere, School of Health SciencesTampereFinland

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