Advertisement

Child Psychiatry & Human Development

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 124–136 | Cite as

Peer Victimization in Youth with Tourette Syndrome and Other Chronic Tic Disorders

  • Samuel H. ZinnerEmail author
  • Christine A. Conelea
  • Gwen M. Glew
  • Douglas W. Woods
  • Cathy L. Budman
Original Article

Abstract

Chronic tic disorders including Tourette syndrome have negative impact across multiple functional domains. We explored associations between peer victimization status and tic subtypes, premonitory urges, internalizing symptoms, explosive outbursts, and quality of life among youth with chronic tic disorders, as part of the internet-based omnibus Tourette Syndrome Impact Survey. A mixed methods design combined child self-report and parental proxy-report (i.e., parent reporting on the child) demographic and quantitative data for affected youth ages 10–17 years addressing gender, mean age, ethnicity and other socioeconomic features, and presence of tic disorders and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Peer “Victim” versus “Non-victim” status was determined using a subset of four questions about being bullied. “Victim” status was identified for those youth who endorsed the frequency of the occurrence of being bullied in one or more of the four questions as “most of the time” or “all of the time”. Data from 211 eligible youth respondents and their parents/guardians showed 26% reporting peer victimization. Victim status was associated with greater tic frequency, complexity and severity; explosive outbursts; internalizing symptoms; and lower quality of life. Peer victimization among youth with chronic tic disorders is common and appears associated with tic morbidity, anxiety, depression, explosive outbursts, and poorer psychosocial functioning. Anticipatory guidance, specific bullying screening and prevention, and further studies are indicated in this population.

Keywords

Tourette syndrome Chronic tic disorder Bullying Peer victimization Quality of life 

Abbreviations

ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

CTD

Chronic tic disorders

MD

Mood disorder

OCD

Obsessive compulsive disorder

PedsQL

Pediatric quality of life inventory

PTQ

Parent tic questionnaire

PUTS

Premonitory urge for tics scale

RAQ

Rage attacks questionnaire

SCAS

Spence children’s anxiety scale: child and parent

SMFQ

Short mood and feelings questionnaire

TS

Tourette syndrome

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the national Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc. for its assistance in participant recruitment for this project; and, Ms. Joanna Witkin for her administrative assistance for preparation of this manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Conti-Ramsden G, Botting N (2004) Social difficulties and victimization in children with SLI at 11 years of age. J Speech Lang Hear Res 47:145–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Glew GM, Fan M-Y, Katon W, Rivara FP, Kernic MA (2005) Bullying, psychosocial adjustment, and academic performance in elementary school. Arch Ped Adolesc Med 159:1026–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) (2007) Prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome in persons aged 6–17 years, United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 58:581–585Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Woods DW, Piacentini J, Himle MB, Chang S (2005) Premonitory urge for tics scale (PUTS): initial psychometric results and examination of premonitory urge phenomenon in youths with tic disorders. J Dev Behav Pediatr 26:397–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cutler D, Murphy T, Gilmour J, Heyman I (2009) The quality of life of young people with Tourette syndrome. Child Care Health Dev 35:496–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eddy CM, Cavanna AE, Gulisano M, Agodi A, Barchitta M, Cali P et al (2011) Clinical correlates of quality of life in Tourette syndrome. Mov Disord 26:735–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Storch EA, Merlo LJ, Lack C, Milsom VA, Geffken GR, Goodman WK et al (2007) Quality of life in youth with Tourette’s syndrome and chronic tic disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 36:217–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Friedrich S, Morgan SB, Devine C (1996) Children’s attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a peer with Tourette syndrome. J Pediatr Psychol 21:307–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stokes A, Bawden HN, Camfield PR, Backman JE, Dooley JM (1991) Peer problems in Tourette’s disorder. Pediatrics 87:936–942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Newcomb AF, Bukowski WM, Pattee L (1993) Children’s peer relations: a meta-analytic review of popular, rejected, neglected, controversial, and average sociometric status. Psychol Bull 113:99–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boudjouk P, Woods DW, Miltenberger RG, Long ES (2000) Negative peer evaluation in adolescents: effects of tic disorders and trichotillomania. Child Fam Behav Ther 22:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Storch EA, Murphy TK, Chase RM, Keeley M, Goodman WK, Murray M et al (2007) Peer victimization in youth with Tourette’s Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder: relations with tic severity and internalizing symptoms. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 29:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Storch EA, Lack CW, Simons LE, Goodman WK, Murphy TK, Geffken GR (2007) A measure of functional impairment in youth with Tourette’s syndrome. J Pediatr Psychol 32:950–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Conelea CA, Woods DW, Zinner SH, Budman C, Murphy T, Scahill LD et al (2011) Exploring the impact of chronic tic disorders on youth: results from the Tourette Syndrome Impact Survey. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 42:219–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sukhodolsky DG, Scahill L, Zhang H, Peterson BS, King RA, Lombroso PJ et al (2003) Disruptive behavior in children with Tourette’s Syndrome with ADHD comorbidity, tic severity, and functional impairment. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:98–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coffey BJ, Parks KS (1997) Behavioral and emotional aspects of Tourette syndrome. Neurol Clin 15:277–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Budman CL, Bruun RD, Park KS, Lesser M, Olson M (2000) Explosive outbursts in children with Tourette’s disorder. J Amer Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:1270–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stephens R, Sandor P (1999) Aggressive behavior in children with Tourette syndrome and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Can J Psychiatry 44:1036–1042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mathews CA, Waller J, Glidden D, Lowe TL, Herrera LD, Budman CL et al (2004) Self injurious behaviour in Tourette syndrome: correlates with impulsivity and impulse control. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:1149–1155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lin H, Katsovich L, Ghebremichael M, Findley DB, Grantz H, Lombroso PJ et al (2007) Psychosocial stress predicts future symptom severities in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive compulsive disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48:157–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Silva RR, Munoz DM, Barickman J, Friedhoff AJ (1995) Environmental factors and related fluctuation of symptoms in children and adolescents with Tourette’s disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 36:305–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Conelea CA, Woods DW (2008) The influence of contextual factors on tic expression in Tourette’s syndrome: a review. J Psychosom Res 65:487–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Woods DW, Piacentini JC, Chang SW, Deckersbach T, Ginsburg GS, Peterson AL et al (2008) Managing tourette syndrome: a behavioral intervention for children and adults. Oxford University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Van Cleave J, Davis MM (2006) Bullying and peer victimization among children with special health care needs. Pediatrics 118:e1212–e1219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nansel TR, Overpeck M, Pilla RS, Ruan WJ, Simons-Morton B, Scheidt P (2001) Bullying behaviors among US youth: prevalence and association with psychological adjustment. JAMA 285:2094–2100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nishina A, Juvonene J, Witkow MR (2005) Sticks and stones may break my bones, but names will make me feel sick: the psychosocial somatic, and scholastic consequences of peer harassment. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 34:37–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hawker DS, Boulton MJ (2000) Twenty years’ research on peer victimization and psychosocial adjustment: a meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 41:441–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chang S, Himle MB, Tucker BTP, Woods DW, Piacentini J (2009) Initial psychometric properties of a brief parent-report instrument for assessing tic severity in children with chronic tic disorders. Child Fam Behav Ther 31:181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Spence SH (1998) A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behav Res Ther 36:545–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Muris P, Merckelbach H, Schmidt H, Gadet BB, Bogie N (2001) Anxiety and depression as correlates of self-reported behavioural inhibition in normal adolescents. Behav Res Ther 39:1051–1061PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nauta MH, Scholing A, Rapee RM, Abbott M, Spence SH, Waters A (2004) A parent-report measure of children’s anxiety: psychometric properties and comparison with child-report in a clinic and normal sample. Behav Res Ther 42:813–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Angold A, Costello EJ, Messer SC (1995) Development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 5:237–249Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chan KS, Mangione-Smith R, Burwinkle TM, Rosen M, Varni JW (2005) Reliability and validity of the short-form generic core scales and asthma module. Med Care 43:256–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kessler R, Coccaro E, Fava M, Jaeger S, Jin R, Walters E (2006) The prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV intermittent explosive disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:669–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Budman C, Coffey B, Shechter R, Schrock M, Wieland N, Spirgel A et al (2008) Aripiprazole in children and adolescents with Tourette disorder with and without explosive outbursts. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 18:509–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dooley JM, Brna PM, Gordon KE (1999) Parent perceptions of symptom severity in Tourette’s syndrome. Arch Dis Child 81:440–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Woods DW, Piacentini JC, Scahill L, Peterson AL, Wilhelm S, Change S et al (2011) Behavior therapy for tics in children: acute and long-term effects on psychiatric and psychosocial functioning. J Child Neurol 26:858–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Solberg M, Olweus D (2003) Prevalence estimations of school bullying with the Olweus Bully/victim Questionnaire. Aggress Behav 29:239–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ladd G, Kochenderfer-Ladd B (2002) Identifying victims of peers aggression from early to middle childhood: analysis of cross informant data for concordance, estimation of relational adjustment, prevalence of victimization, and characteristics of identified victims. Psychol Assess 14:74–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel H. Zinner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christine A. Conelea
    • 2
  • Gwen M. Glew
    • 1
  • Douglas W. Woods
    • 3
  • Cathy L. Budman
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Washington School of Medicine, CHDDSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Human BehaviorBrown University, Rhode Island HospitalProvidenceUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryHofstra University School of MedicineManhassetUSA

Personalised recommendations