Child Psychiatry & Human Development

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 463–481 | Cite as

Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender

  • Cliff McKinney
  • Mary Catherine Milone
  • Kimberly Renk
Original Article


Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads.


Parenting Discipline Gender Late adolescents Emotional adjustment 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cliff McKinney
    • 1
  • Mary Catherine Milone
    • 1
  • Kimberly Renk
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA

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