Child Psychiatry & Human Development

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 442–462 | Cite as

A Multivariate Model of Parent–Adolescent Relationship Variables in Early Adolescence

  • Cliff McKinney
  • Kimberly Renk
Original Article


Given the importance of predicting outcomes for early adolescents, this study examines a multivariate model of parent–adolescent relationship variables, including parenting, family environment, and conflict. Participants, who completed measures assessing these variables, included 710 culturally diverse 11–14-year-olds who were attending a middle school in a Southeastern state. The parents of a subset of these adolescents (i.e., 487 mother–father pairs) participated in this study as well. Correlational analyses indicate that authoritative and authoritarian parenting, family cohesion and adaptability, and conflict are significant predictors of early adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Structural equation modeling analyses indicate that fathers’ parenting may not predict directly externalizing problems in male and female adolescents but instead may act through conflict. More direct relationships exist when examining mothers’ parenting. The impact of parenting, family environment, and conflict on early adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems and the importance of both gender and cross-informant ratings are emphasized.


Parent–adolescent relationships Adolescent development Parenting Adolescent adjustment 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA

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