Child Psychiatry and Human Development

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 467–483

Children’s Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Feasibility of a Self-Report Measure of Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms in Youth

  • Eric A. Storch
  • Muniya Khanna
  • Lisa J. Merlo
  • Benjamin A. Loew
  • Martin Franklin
  • Jeannette M. Reid
  • Wayne K. Goodman
  • Tanya K. Murphy
Original Article

Abstract

This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children’s Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive–compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed with primary Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, and their parents. The Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) was administered to assess symptom severity. Thereafter, parents completed the Child Obsessive–Compulsive Impact Scale—Parent Version and Child Behavior Checklist, and youth completed the C-FOCI, Child Obsessive–Compulsive Impact Scale—Child Version, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, and Children’s Depression Inventory—Short Form. A subgroup of 21 individuals was retested with the C-FOCI after completing 14 sessions of intensive cognitive-behavioral therapy. Construct validity of the C-FOCI was supported vis-à-vis evidence of treatment sensitivity, and moderate relations with clinician-rated symptom severity, the CY-BOCS Symptom Checklist, child- and parent-rated functional impairment, child-rated anxiety, and parent-rated internalizing symptoms. Discriminant validity was evidenced by weak relationships with parent-reports of externalizing symptoms. For Study 2, 191 non-clinical adolescents completed the C-FOCI to assess the feasibility of internet administration. Overall, internal consistency was acceptable for the C-FOCI Symptom Checklist and Severity Scale, and respondents were able to complete the measure with little difficulty. Taken together, the findings of Studies 1 and 2 provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the C-FOCI for the assessment of pediatric obsessive–compulsive symptoms.

Keywords

Obsessive–Compulsive disorder Children Assessment Treatment Validity Reliability 

References

  1. 1.
    Douglass HM, Moffitt TE, Dar R, McGee R, Silva P (1995) Obsessive–Compulsive disorder in a birth cohort of 18-year-olds: prevalence and predictors. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:1424–1431. doi:10.1097/00004583-199511000-00008 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rapoport JL, Inoff-Germain G (2000) Treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. J Child Psychol 41:419–431. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00627 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Valleni-Basile LA, Garrison CZ, Jackson KL, Waller JL, McKeown RE, Addy CL et al (1994) Frequency of obsessive–compulsive disorder in a community sample of young adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33:782–791. doi:10.1097/00004583-199407000-00002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zohar AH (1999) The epidemiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 8:445–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Piacentini J, Bergman RL, Keller M, McCracken JT (2003) Functional impairment in children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 13S–1:S61–S69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Heyman I, Fombonne E, Simmons H, Ford T, Meltzer H, Goodman R (2001) Prevalence of obsessive–compulsive disorder in the British nationwide survey of child mental health. Br J Psychiatry 179:324–329. doi:10.1192/bjp.179.4.324 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Scahill L, Riddle MA, McSwiggin-Hardin M, Ort SI, King RA, Goodman WK et al (1997) Children’s yale-brown obsessive compulsive scale: reliability and validity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:844–852. doi:10.1097/00004583-199706000-00023 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Storch EA, Murphy TK, Geffken GR, Soto O, Sajid M, Allen P et al (2004) Psychometric evaluation of the children’s yale-brown obsessive compulsive scale. Psychiatry Res 129:91–98. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2004.06.009 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) Team (2004) Cognitive-behavior therapy, sertraline, and their combination for children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder: the pediatric OCD treatment study (POTS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 292:1969–1976. doi:10.1001/jama.292.16.1969 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berg CZ, Whitaker A, Davies M, Flament MF, Rapoport JL (1988) The survey form of the Leyton obsessional inventory—child version: norms from an epidemiological study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 27:758–763. doi:10.1097/00004583-198811000-00017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shafran R, Frampton I, Heyman I, Reynolds M, Teachman B, Rachman S (2003) The preliminary development of a new self-report measure for OCD in young people. J Adolesc 26:137–142. doi:10.1016/S0140-1971(02)00083-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Foa EB, Coles ME, Huppert JD, Pasupuleti R, Franklin ME, March JS (2009) Development and validation of a child version of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. Behav Ther (in press)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Berg CZ, Rapoport J, Flament M (1986) The Leyton obsessional inventory-child version. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 25:84–91Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bamber D, Tamplin A, Park RJ, Kyte ZA, Goodyer IM (2002) Development of a short Leyton obsessional inventory for children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:1246–1252. doi:10.1097/00004583-200210000-00015 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Flament MF, Whitaker A, Rapoport JL, Davies M, Berg CZ, Kalikow K et al (1988) Obsessive compulsive disorder in adolescence: an epidemiological study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 27:764–771. doi:10.1097/00004583-198811000-00018 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    King N, Inglis S, Jenkins M, Myerson N, Ollendick T (1995) Test–retest reliability of the survey form of the Leyton obsessional compulsive inventory—child version. Percept Mot Skills 80:1200–1202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stewart SE, Ceranoglu TA, O’Hanley T, Geller DA (2005) Performance of clinician versus self-report measures to identify obsessive–compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 15:956–963. doi:10.1089/cap.2005.15.956 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Como PG, Kurlan R (1991) An open-label of fluoxetine for obsessive–compulsive disorder in Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome. Neurology 41:872–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    de Haan E, Hoogduin KA, Buitelaar JK, Keijsers GP (1998) Behavior therapy versus clomipramine for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children and adolescent. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37:1022–1029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Geller DA, Biederman J, Stewart SE, Mullin B, Martin A, Spencer T et al (2003) Which SSRI? A meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy trials in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 160:1919–1928. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.11.1919 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Uher R, Heyman I, Turner CM, Shafran R (2008) Self-, parent-report and interview measures of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. J Anxiety Disord 22:979–990. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.10.001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Foa EB, Kozak MJ, Salkovskis PM, Coles ME, Amir N (1998) The validation of a new obsessive–compulsive disorder scale: the obsessive–compulsive inventory. Psychol Assess 10:206–214. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.10.3.206 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Foa EB, Huppert JD, Leiberg S, Langner R, Kichic R, Hajcak G et al (2002) The obsessive–compulsive inventory: development and validation of a short version. Psychol Assess 14:485–496. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.14.4.485 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Abramowitz JS, Tolin DF, Diefenbach GJ (2005) Measuring change in OCD: sensitivity of the obsessive–compulsive inventory-revised. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 27:317–325. doi:10.1007/s10862-005-2411-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Silverman WK, Albano AM (1996) The anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV, child and parent versions. Graywind, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Geller DA, Biederman J, Faraone S, Agranat A, Cradock K, Hagermoser L et al (2001) Developmental aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder: findings in children, adolescents, and adults. J Nerv Ment Dis 189:471–477. doi:10.1097/00005053-200107000-00009 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Storch EA, Kaufman DA, Bagner D, Merlo LJ, Shapira NA, Geffken GR et al (2007) Florida obsessive–compulsive inventory: development, reliability, and validity. J Clin Psychol 63:851–859. doi:10.1002/jclp.20382 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Woody SR, Steketee G, Chambless DL (1995) Reliability and validity of the yale-brown obsessive–compulsive scale. Behav Res Ther 33:597–605. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(94)00076-V PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Silverman WK, Saavedra LM, Pina AA (2001) Test–retest reliability of anxiety symptoms and diagnoses with anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV: child and parent versions. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:937–944. doi:10.1097/00004583-200108000-00016 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kendall PC, Flannery-Schroeder E, Panichelli-Mindel SM, Southam-Gerow M, Henin M, Warman M (1997) Therapy for youths with anxiety disorders: a second randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 65:366–380. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.65.3.366 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Storch EA, Murphy TK, Geffken GR, Soto O, Sajid M, Bagner DM et al (2005) Factor structure of the children’s yale-brown obsessive–compulsive scale. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 34:312–319. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3402_10 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kovacs M (1992) The children’s depression inventory manual. Multi-Health Systems, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    March JS, Parker JD, Sullivan K, Stallings P, Conners CK (1997) The multidimensional anxiety scale for children: factor structure, reliability, and validity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:554–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    March JS, Sullivan K, Parker J (1999) Test-retest reliability of the multidimensional anxiety scale for children. J Anxiety Disord 13:349–358. doi:10.1016/S0887-6185(99)00009-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Achenbach TM (1991) Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18 and 1991 Profile, University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cronbach LJ (1951) Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 16:297–334. doi:10.1007/BF02310555 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mataix-Cols D, Rosario-Campos MC, Leckman JF (2005) A multidimensional model of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 162:228–238. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.2.228 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Abramowitz JS, Deacon BJ (2006) Psychometric properties and construct validity of the obsessive–compulsive inventory-revised: replication and extension with a clinical sample. J Anxiety Disord 20:1016–1035. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.03.001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Barrett P, Healy-Farrell L, March JS (2004) Cognitive-behavioral family treatment of childhood obsessive–compulsive disorder: a controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:46–62. doi:10.1097/00004583-200401000-00014 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Storch EA, Geffken GR, Merlo LJ, Mann G, Duke D, Munson M et al (2007) Family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder: comparison of intensive and weekly approaches. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:469–478. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e31803062e7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Woods DW, Flessner CA, Franklin ME, Keuthen NJ, Goodwin RD, Stein DJ et al (2006) The Trichotillomania impact project: exploring phenomenology, functional impairment, and treatment utilization. J Clin Psychiatry 67:1877–1888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Franklin ME, Flessner CA, Woods DW, Keuthen NJ, Piacentini JC, Moore PS et al (2008) The child and adolescent Trichotillomania impact project (CA-TIP): exploring descriptive psychopathology, functional impairment, comorbidity, and treatment utilization. J Dev Behav Pediatr 29:493–500. doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e31818d4328 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tolin DF, Diefenbach GJ, Flessner CA, Franklin ME, Woods DW, Keuthen NJ et al (2008) The Trichotillomania scale for children: development and validation. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 39:331–349. doi:10.1007/s10578-007-0092-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Buchanan EA (2000) Ethics, qualitative research, and ethnography in virtual space. J Inf Ethics 9:82–87Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Joinson A (1999) Social desirability, anonymity, and internet-based questionnaires. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 31:433–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pasveer KA, Ellard JF (1998) The making of a personality inventory: help from the WWW. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 30:309–313Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Davis RN (1999) Web-based administration of a personality questionnaire: comparison with traditional methods. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 31:572–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Muris H, Merckelbach Clavan M (1997) Abnormal and normal compulsions. Behav Res Ther 35:249–252. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(96)00114-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rachman S, de Silva P (1978) Abnormal and normal obsessions. Behav Res Ther 16:233–248. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(78)90022-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rassin E, Muris P (2007) Abnormal and normal obsessions: a reconsideration. Behav Res Ther 45:1065–1070. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.05.005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rassin E, Cougle JR, Muris P (2007) Content difference between normal and abnormal obsessions. Behav Res Ther 45:2800–2803. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2007.07.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    McKay D, Neziroglu F, Stevens K, Yaryura-Tobias JA (1998) The yale-brown obsessive–compulsive scale: confirmatory factor analytic findings. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 20:265–274. doi:10.1023/A:1023019419065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Geller DA, Doyle R, Shaw D, Mullin B, Coffey B, Petty C et al (2006) A quick and reliable screening measure for OCD in youth: reliability and validity of the obsessive compulsive scale of the child behavior checklist. Compr Psychiatry 47:234–240. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2005.08.005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hudziak JJ, Althoff RR, Stanger C, van Beijsterveldt CEM, Nelson EC, Hanna GL et al (2006) The obsessive compulsive scale of the child behavior checklist predicts obsessive–compulsive disorder: a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47:160–166. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01465.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hudziak JJ, van Beijsterveldt CE, Althoff RR, Stranger C, Rettew DC, Nelson EC et al (2004) Genetic and environmental contributions to the child behavior checklist obsessive compulsive scale: a cross-cultural twin study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:608–616. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.6.608 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nelson EC, Hanna GL, Hudziak JJ, Botteron KN, Heath AC, Todd RD (2001) Obsessive–compulsive scale of the child behavior checklist: specificity, sensitivity, and predictive power. Pediatrics 108:E14. doi:10.1542/peds.108.1.e14 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Storch EA, Murphy TK, Bagner DM, Johns N, Baumeister A, Goodman WK et al (2006) Reliability and validity of the child behavior checklist obsessive–compulsive scale. J Anxiety Disord 20:473–485. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2005.06.002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric A. Storch
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muniya Khanna
    • 3
  • Lisa J. Merlo
    • 4
  • Benjamin A. Loew
    • 3
  • Martin Franklin
    • 3
  • Jeannette M. Reid
    • 1
  • Wayne K. Goodman
    • 5
  • Tanya K. Murphy
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of South FloridaSt. PetersburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of South FloridaSt. PetersburgUSA
  3. 3.Center for the Treatment and Study of AnxietyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  5. 5.National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations