Direct and Passive Prenatal Nicotine Exposure and the Development of Externalizing Psychopathology
- 343 Downloads
The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood antisocial outcomes has been demonstrated repeatedly across a variety of outcomes. Yet debate continues as to whether this association reflects a direct programming effect of nicotine on fetal brain development, or a phenotypic indicator of heritable liability passed from mother to child. In the current study, we examine relations between maternal smoking and child behavior among 133 women and their 7–15-year-olds, who were recruited for clinical levels of psychopathology. In order to disentangle correlates of maternal smoking, women who smoked during pregnancy were compared with (a) those who did not smoke, and (b) those who did not smoke but experienced significant second-hand exposure. Second-hand exposure was associated with increased externalizing psychopathology in participant mothers’ offspring. Moreover, regression analyses indicated that smoke exposure during pregnancy predicted conduct disorder symptoms, over and above the effects of income, parental antisocial tendencies, prematurity, birth weight, and poor parenting practices. This is the first study to extend the findings of externalizing vulnerability to second hand smoke exposure.
KeywordsMaternal smoking Conduct disorder Aggression Second hand smoke ADHD
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Linnet KM, Dalsgaard S, Obel C, Wisborg K, Henriksen TB, Rodriguez A, Kotimaa A, Moilanen I, Thomsen PH, Olsen J, Jarvelin MR (2003) Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: review of the current evidence. Am J Psychiatry 160:1028–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Milberger S, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Chen L Jones J (1998) Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children? Am J Psychiatry 153:1138–1142Google Scholar
- 16.Slotkin TA (1998) Fetal nicotine or cocaine exposure: which one is worse? The J Pharmacol Exp Ther 285:931–945Google Scholar
- 20.Gatzke-Kopp L, Beauchaine TP (2007) Central nervous system substrates of impulsivity: implications for the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. In: Coch D, Dawson G, Fischer K (eds) Human behavior and the developing brain: atypical development, Guilford Press, New York, pp 239–263Google Scholar
- 22.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2006) The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.SGoogle Scholar
- 32.Achenbach TM (1991) Manual for the child behavior checklist/4–18 and 1991 profile. University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry, Burlington VTGoogle Scholar
- 33.Gadow KD, Sprafkin J (1997) Child symptom inventory-4 norms manual.Checkmate Plus, Stony Brook, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 34.First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW (1997) Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV personality disorders, (SCID-II). American Psychiatric Press, Inc., Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 35.Maxwell ME (1992) Family interview for genetic studies. Clinical Neurogenetic Branch, Intramural Research Program, NIMHGoogle Scholar