State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents
- 220 Downloads
To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents.
Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions under two conditions (free association and stress condition). Finally, delinquent participants completed a detailed assessment of past trauma using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI).
Delinquents exhibit significantly higher levels of negative state and trait emotions when compared to a high school sample. In the delinquent sample chronicity of physical trauma affects the longstanding variable of trait emotionality and severity of trauma, specifically emotional abuse and witnessing violence, shapes negative emotional outcomes in state emotionality. In addition, delinquents appear to experience a wider range of emotions than the comparison sample and were more likely to experience a confluence of state emotions of sadness and anger under stressed conditions.
Adolescent delinquents appear to have a different experience of negative emotions than comparison adolescents. The experience of emotions appears to differ in state and trait conditions. These emotions may be related to childhood experiences of trauma.
KeywordsDelinquency Emotions Trauma
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This research was supported by a grant to Dr. Plattner by the Austrian Justizministerium; an NIMH grant 5T32 MH19908–03 and an Eli Lilly Pilot Research Award to Dr.␣Carrion; grants to Dr. Steiner by the Eucalyptus Foundation, the Constance Bultman Wilson Foundation and The California Wellness Foundation Violence Prevention Initiative. There are no financial ties with profit enterprises associated with this study. Thank you to Professor Helena Kraemer, Professor of Biostatistics in Psychiatry, for her statistical expertise.
- 2.Lewis M (2000) The emergence of human emotions. In: M Lewis, JM Haviland-Jones (eds) Handbook of Emotions, 2nd edn. The Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 3.Sroufe LA (1979) Socioemotional development. In: JD Osofsky (ed) Handbook of infant development. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 12.Steiner H, Saxena K, Chang K (2003) Psychopharmacologic strategies for the treatment of aggression in juveniles. CNS Spectrum 4:298–308Google Scholar
- 13.Healy W (1915) The individual delinquent. Patterson Smith, Montclair, NJGoogle Scholar
- 14.Aichhorn A (1935) Wayward Youth. Viking Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 18.Spielberger CD, Barratt ES (1972) Anxiety: current trends in theory and research. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 19.Panksepp J (1998) Affective neuroscience: the foundations of human and animal emotions. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 27.Khanzode L, Saxena K, Chang K, Steiner H (2006) Efficacy profiles of psychopharmacology: divalproex sodium. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev (in press)Google Scholar
- 28.Spielberger CD, Vagg PR, Barker LR, Donham GW, Westberry LG (1980) The factor structure of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In: Sarason IG, Spielberger CD (eds) Stress and anxiety. Hemisphere, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 29.Spielberger CD (1983) Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Consulting Psychologist Press, Palo Alto, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
- 30.Weintraub W (1981) Verbal behavior: adaption and psychopathology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 32.Folkman S, Lazarus RS (1985) If it changes it must be a process: study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. J Pers Soc Psychol 48:150–170Google Scholar
- 33.Damasio AR (2003) Looking for Spinoza: joy, sorrow, and the feeling brain. Hartcourt, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
- 34.Browne MW, Arminger G (1995) Specification and estimation of mean- and covariance structure models. In: Arminger G Clogg CC (eds) Handbook of statistical modeling for the social and behavioral sciences. Plenum, ME Sobal, New York Google Scholar
- 35.Jöreskog KC, Sörbom D (1979) Advances in Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Models. Abt Books, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- 36.Sörbom D (1982) Structural equation models with structures means. In: Joresog KG, Wold H (eds) Systems under indirect observation, Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- 37.Muthen LK, Muthen B (2004) Mplus User’s Guide. Los Angeles, CAGoogle Scholar
- 41.Steiner H, Delizonna L, Saxena K, Medic S, Plattner B, & Haapanen R (2005) Does the two factor model of aggression hold in incarcerated delinquents? Scientific Proceedings of The Annual Meeting Of The American Psychiatric Association, Atlanta, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar