Child Psychiatry and Human Development

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 55–64 | Cite as

Efficacy Profiles of Psychopharmacology: Divalproex Sodium in Conduct Disorder

  • Leena A. Khanzode
  • Kirti Saxena
  • Helena Kraemer
  • Kiki Chang
  • Hans Steiner
Original Paperr


Little is known about how deeply medication treatment penetrates different levels of the mind/brain system. Psychopathology consists of relatively simple constructs (e.g., anger, irritability), or complex ones (e.g., responsibility). This study examines the efficacy of a specific compound, divalproex sodium (DVPX), on the various levels of psychopathology, utilizing a previous study in which 71 youth with conduct disorder were enrolled in a randomized controlled 7-week clinical trial. We examined weekly slopes of “emotional cognitions” of varying degrees of complexity obtained by Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI), measuring more basic states, such as anger, depression, happiness and anxiety, and complex states, such as impulse control, consideration of others, responsibility and self-esteem. Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant associations between assignment to the active treatment and improvement in depression and impulse control. This is a rare clinical trial, which provides preliminary evidence for the different profiles of efficacy of medication treatment.


Emotions Divalproex sodium Conduct disorder Clinical trial 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leena A. Khanzode
    • 1
  • Kirti Saxena
    • 1
  • Helena Kraemer
    • 1
  • Kiki Chang
    • 1
  • Hans Steiner
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Child Psychiatry and Child DevelopmentStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA

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