Chromosome Research

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 335–350 | Cite as

A region of euchromatin coincides with an extensive tandem repeat on the mouse (Mus musculus) inactive X chromosome

  • Emily M. Darrow
  • Andrew P. Seberg
  • Sunny Das
  • Debbie M. Figueroa
  • Zhuo Sun
  • Shawn C. Moseley
  • Brian P. Chadwick
Article

Abstract

Euchromatic features are largely absent from the human inactive X chromosome (Xi), with the exception of several large tandem repeats that can be detected as euchromatin bands at metaphase. Despite residing megabases apart, these tandem repeats make frequent inactive X-specific interactions. The mouse homologue has been reported for at least one of the tandem repeats, but whether the mouse Xi is also characterized by distinct bands of euchromatin remains unknown. We examined the mouse Xi for the presence of euchromatin bands by examining the pattern of histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 and detected two major signals. The first band resides in the subtelomeric region of band XF5 and may correspond to the pseudoautosomal region. The second band localizes to XE3 and coincides with an extensive complex repeat composed of a large tandem and inverted repeat segment as well as several large short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-rich tandem repeats. Fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals that sequences with homology to the repeat region are scattered along the length of the Y chromosome. Immunofluorescence analysis of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9 on metaphase chromosomes indicates that the repeat region corresponds to a band of constitutive heterochromatin on the male X and female active X chromosomes, whereas the euchromatin signal appears to be female specific. These data suggest that the band of euchromatin observed at XE3 is unique to the mouse Xi, comparable to the chromatin arrangement of several large tandem repeats located on the human X chromosome.

Keywords

Inactive X chromosome H3K4me2 Tandem repeat Mouse X chromosome Euchromatin and heterochromatin 

Abbreviations

Astx

Amplified spermatogenic transcripts X encoded

BAC

Bacterial artificial chromosome

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

CTCF

CCCTC-binding factor

DAPI

4′,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole

FISH

Fluorescence in situ hybridization

H3K4me2

Histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4

H3K9me3

Histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9

H3K27me3

Histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 27

kb

Kilobase

lincRNA

Long noncoding RNA

LINE

Long interspersed nuclear element

LTR

Long terminal repeat

Mb

Megabase

PAR

Pseudoautosomal region

PBS

Phosphate-buffered saline

Rps12

Ribosomal protein S12

SINE

Short interspersed nuclear element

Srsx

Serine-rich secreted X-linked

Vmn2r121

Vomeronasal 2 receptor 121

Xa

Active X chromosome

XCI

X chromosome inactivation

Xi

Inactive X chromosome

Xic

X inactivation center

Xist

X inactive-specific transcript

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emily M. Darrow
    • 1
  • Andrew P. Seberg
    • 1
  • Sunny Das
    • 1
  • Debbie M. Figueroa
    • 1
  • Zhuo Sun
    • 1
  • Shawn C. Moseley
    • 1
  • Brian P. Chadwick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological ScienceFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

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