Chromosome Research

, Volume 21, Issue 6–7, pp 601–614

Long nonoding RNAs in the X-inactivation center

  • Emily Maclary
  • Michael Hinten
  • Clair Harris
  • Sundeep Kalantry

DOI: 10.1007/s10577-013-9396-2

Cite this article as:
Maclary, E., Hinten, M., Harris, C. et al. Chromosome Res (2013) 21: 601. doi:10.1007/s10577-013-9396-2


The X-inactivation center is a hotbed of functional long noncoding RNAs in eutherian mammals. These RNAs are thought to help orchestrate the epigenetic transcriptional states of the two X-chromosomes in females as well as of the single X-chromosome in males. To balance X-linked gene expression between the sexes, females undergo transcriptional silencing of most genes on one of the two X-chromosomes in a process termed X-chromosome inactivation. While one X-chromosome is inactivated, the other X-chromosome remains active. Moreover, with a few notable exceptions, the originally established epigenetic transcriptional profiles of the two X-chromosomes is maintained as such through many rounds of cell division, essentially for the life of the organism. The stable and divergent transcriptional fates of the two X-chromosomes, despite residing in a shared nucleoplasm, make X-inactivation a paradigm of epigenetic transcriptional regulation. Originally proposed in 1961 by Mary Lyon, the X-inactivation hypothesis has been validated through much experimentation. In the last 25 years, the discovery and functional characterization has firmly established X-linked long noncoding RNAs as key players in choreographing X-chromosome inactivation.


Xist Tsix Polycomb group Jpx Tsx Ftx RepA X-inactivation X-chromosome inactivation Histone modifications Epigenetic regulation 



Embryonic stem cells


X-inactive specific transcript


Polycomb repressive complex 1


Polycomb repressive complex 2


Histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation


Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation


Open reading frame


Short hairpin RNA

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emily Maclary
    • 1
  • Michael Hinten
    • 1
  • Clair Harris
    • 1
  • Sundeep Kalantry
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human GeneticsUniversity of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn ArborUSA

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