Chromosome Research

, 19:763 | Cite as

DNA content variation in monilophytes and lycophytes: large genomes that are not endopolyploid

  • Jillian D. Bainard
  • Thomas A. Henry
  • Luke D. Bainard
  • Steven G. Newmaster


Less than 1% of known monilophytes and lycophytes have a genome size estimate, and substantially less is known about the presence and prevalence of endopolyploid nuclei in these groups. Thirty-one monilophyte species (including three horsetails) and six lycophyte species were collected in Ontario, Canada. Using flow cytometry, genome size and degree of endopolyploidy were estimated for 37 species. Across the five orders covered, 1Cx-values averaged 4.2 pg in the Lycopodiales, 18.1 pg for the Equisetales, 5.06 pg for a single representative of the Ophioglossales, 14.3 pg for the Osmundales, and 7.06 pg for the Polypodiales. There was no indication of endoreduplication in any of the leaf, stem, or root tissue analyzed. This information is essential to our understanding of DNA content evolution in land plants.


Genome size Endoreduplication C-value Flow cytometry Ferns Clubmosses Horsetails Pteridophytes 



Endoreduplication index




Propidium iodide



Supplementary material

10577_2011_9228_MOESM1_ESM.docx (24 kb)
Table S 1Detailed taxonomic information for monilophytes and lycophytes analyzed by Bainard et al., along with collection and voucher details and references for cytological information. (DOCX 24 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jillian D. Bainard
    • 1
  • Thomas A. Henry
    • 1
  • Luke D. Bainard
    • 1
  • Steven G. Newmaster
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Integrative BiologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

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