Chromosome Research

, 15:115 | Cite as

Karyotype diversity and the origin of grapefruit

  • Ana Paula de Moraes
  • Walter dos Santos Soares Filho
  • Marcelo Guerra


Grapefruit is a group of citrus of recent origin, probably resulting from a cross between pummelo and sweet-orange. Aiming to investigate this putative origin and the genetic variability among grapefruit cultivars, the karyotype of six grapefruits, two pummelos, and one tangelo cultivar (grapefruit × tangerine) were analyzed using sequential CMA/DAPI double staining and FISH with rDNA probes. The karyotypes of grapefruit ‘Duncan’ and ‘Foster’ differ from those of ‘Flame’, ‘Henderson’, ‘Marsh’ and ‘Rio Red’. The former have two chromosomes with a single CMA+ band in both terminal regions (C type chromosome) and six chromosomes with only one CMA+ terminal band (D type), whereas the latter have three C and five D type chromosomes. All accessions investigated exhibited two chromosomes with 5S rDNA but a variable number of 45S rDNA. The two former grapefruits displayed four 45S rDNA sites, whereas the remaining grapefruit cultivars had five. The two pummelos showed identical karyotypes, homozygous for CMA+ bands and their four rDNA sites. From each pummelo chromosome pair one chromosome seems to be present in grapefruit karyotypes. The different grapefruit karyotypes might result from independent crosses between pummelos of different karyotypic constitution and sweet-oranges. The chromosome markers found in the tangelo ‘Orlando’ and the position of their two 45S rDNA confirm the grapefruit ‘Duncan’ and the tangerine ‘Dancy’ as their parents.

Key words

Citrus CMA/DAPI banding grapefruit karyotype evolution rDNA 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Paula de Moraes
    • 1
  • Walter dos Santos Soares Filho
    • 2
  • Marcelo Guerra
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Citogenética Vegetal, Departamento de BotânicaUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  2. 2.Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura TropicalCruz das AlmasBrazil

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