Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 1–10 | Cite as

Research Advances of Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage: An Update Review

  • Jinqi Luo
  • Yujie Luo
  • Hanhai Zeng
  • Cesar Reis
  • Sheng ChenEmail author
Review Paper


Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) refers to bleeding that derives from the subependymal (or periventricular) germinal region of the premature brain. GMH can induce severe and irreversible damage attributing to the vulnerable structure of germinal matrix and deleterious circumstances. Molecular mechanisms remain obscure so far. In this review, we summarized the newest preclinical discoveries recent years about GMH to distill a deeper understanding of the neuropathology, and then discuss the potential diagnostic or therapeutic targets among these pathways. GMH studies mostly in recent 5 years were sorted out and the authors generalized the newest discoveries and ideas into four parts of this essay. Intrinsic fragile structure of preterm germinal matrix is the fundamental cause leading to GMH. Many molecules have been found effective in the pathophysiological courses. Some of these molecules like minocycline are suggested active to reduce the damage in animal GMH model. However, researchers are still trying to find efficient diagnostic methods and remedies that are available in preterm infants to rehabilitate or cure the sequent injury. Merits have been obtained in the last several years on molecular pathways of GMH, but more work is required to further unravel the whole pathophysiology.


Germinal matrix hemorrhage Preterm infant Neuropathology 


Author Contributions

SC was the principal investigator. JL and YL wrote the paper and made the original figures. HZ revised the figures. CR handled the language and made some comments.


This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81500992), Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang (LQ16H090002), and Medical and Health Key Project of Zhejiang Province (2016RCA015).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare there is no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinqi Luo
    • 1
  • Yujie Luo
    • 1
  • Hanhai Zeng
    • 2
  • Cesar Reis
    • 3
  • Sheng Chen
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated HospitalZhejiang University School of MedicineHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Neurological Surgery, The Children’s HospitalZhejiang University School of MedicineHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of Physiology and PharmacologyLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Neurosurgery, Taizhou HospitalWenzhou Medical UniversityLinhaiChina

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