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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 38, Issue 7, pp 1349–1368 | Cite as

Mechanisms of Blood Brain Barrier Disruption by Different Types of Bacteria, and Bacterial–Host Interactions Facilitate the Bacterial Pathogen Invading the Brain

  • Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi
  • Mohd Nasir Mohd Desa
Review Paper

Abstract

This review aims to elucidate the different mechanisms of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption that may occur due to invasion by different types of bacteria, as well as to show the bacteria–host interactions that assist the bacterial pathogen in invading the brain. For example, platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) is responsible for brain invasion during the adhesion of pneumococci to brain endothelial cells, which might lead to brain invasion. Additionally, the major adhesin of the pneumococcal pilus-1, RrgA is able to bind the BBB endothelial receptors: polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), thus leading to invasion of the brain. Moreover, Streptococcus pneumoniae choline binding protein A (CbpA) targets the common carboxy-terminal domain of the laminin receptor (LR) establishing initial contact with brain endothelium that might result in BBB invasion. Furthermore, BBB disruption may occur by S. pneumoniae penetration through increasing in pro-inflammatory markers and endothelial permeability. In contrast, adhesion, invasion, and translocation through or between endothelial cells can be done by S. pneumoniae without any disruption to the vascular endothelium, upon BBB penetration. Internalins (InlA and InlB) of Listeria monocytogenes interact with its cellular receptors E-cadherin and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) to facilitate invading the brain. L. monocytogenes species activate NF-κB in endothelial cells, encouraging the expression of P- and E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and Vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1), as well as IL-6 and IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), all these markers assist in BBB disruption. Bacillus anthracis species interrupt both adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs), leading to BBB disruption. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) permeability and BBB disruption are induced via interendothelial junction proteins reduction as well as up-regulation of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha (MIP1α) markers in Staphylococcus aureus species. Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus toxins (GBS) enhance IL-8 and ICAM-1 as well as nitric oxide (NO) production from endothelial cells via the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enhancement, resulting in BBB disruption. While Gram-negative bacteria, Haemophilus influenza OmpP2 is able to target the common carboxy-terminal domain of LR to start initial interaction with brain endothelium, then invade the brain. H. influenza type b (HiB), can induce BBB permeability through TJ disruption. LR and PAFR binding sites have been recognized as common routes of CNS entrance by Neisseria meningitidis. N. meningitidis species also initiate binding to BMECs and induces AJs deformation, as well as inducing specific cleavage of the TJ component occludin through the release of host MMP-8. Escherichia coli bind to BMECs through LR, resulting in IL-6 and IL-8 release and iNOS production, as well as resulting in disassembly of TJs between endothelial cells, facilitating BBB disruption. Therefore, obtaining knowledge of BBB disruption by different types of bacterial species will provide a picture of how the bacteria enter the central nervous system (CNS) which might support the discovery of therapeutic strategies for each bacteria to control and manage infection.

Keywords

Blood brain barrier Bacterial infection Meningitis Therapeutic strategies 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the fundamental research grant scheme, (Grant No. 5524924), and long term research grant scheme (Grant No. 5526406), Ministry of education Malaysia.

Author Contributions

MMJ designed the manuscript, searched the literatures and wrote the review. MNMD revised the review.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Halal Products Research InstituteUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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