Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 405–416 | Cite as

Effects of Estrogen and Phytoestrogen Treatment on an In Vitro Model of Recurrent Stroke on HT22 Neuronal Cell Line

  • Javier Morán
  • Marcos Perez-Basterrechea
  • Pablo Garrido
  • Elena Díaz
  • Ana Alonso
  • Jesús Otero
  • Enrique Colado
  • Celestino González
Original Research

Abstract

An increase of stroke incidence occurs in women with the decline of estrogen levels following menopause. This ischemic damage may recur, especially soon after the first insult has occurred. We evaluated the effects of estrogen and phytoestrogen treatment on an in vitro recurrent stroke model using the HT22 neuronal cell line. HT22 cells were treated with 17β-estradiol or genistein 1 h after the beginning of the first of two oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) cycles. During the second OGD, there was a deterioration of some components of the electron transport chain, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 with a subsequent increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Accordingly, there was also an increase of apoptotic phenomena demonstrated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 cleavage, Caspase-3 activity, and Annexin V levels. The recurrent ischemic injury also raised the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and glucose transporter 1 levels, as well as the ratio between the lipidated and cytosolic forms of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II/LC3-I). We found a positive effect of estradiol and genistein treatment by partially preserving the impaired cell viability after the recurrent ischemic injury; however, this positive effect does not seem to be mediated neither by blocking apoptosis processes nor by decreasing ROS production. This work contribute to the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by recurrent ischemic damage in neuronal cells and, therefore, could help with the development of an effective treatment to minimize the consequences of this pathology.

Keywords

Recurrent stroke Genistein 17β-estradiol Apoptosis Oxidative metabolism HT22 cells 

Abbreviations

OGD/R

Oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation

OGD

Oxygen and glucose deprivation

CO-1

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

PARP-1

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1

HIF-1α

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α

GLUT

Glucose transporter

LC3

Microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3

I/R

Ischemia/reperfusion

ETC

Electron transport chain

PH

Prolyl hydroxylase

HRE

Hypoxia response element

ER

Estrogen receptor

SERM

Selective estrogen receptor modulator

DMEM

Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium

FBS

Fetal bovine serum

N

Cells cultured in complete medium under normoxia

V

Cells subjected to OGD or OGD/R and treated with vehicle

E

Cells subjected to OGD or OGD/R and treated with estradiol

G

Cells subjected to OGD or OGD/R and treated with genistein

MTT

3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium

TBS-T

Tris-HCL 20 mM pH 7.5, NaCl 150 mM, Tween-20 0,1 % v/v

HRP

Horseradish peroxidase

ECL

Enhanced chemiluminescence

DCFDA

2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescein diacetate

PI

Propidium iodide

AV

Annexin V

CNS

Central nervous system

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javier Morán
    • 1
    • 5
  • Marcos Perez-Basterrechea
    • 2
  • Pablo Garrido
    • 1
    • 6
  • Elena Díaz
    • 1
  • Ana Alonso
    • 1
  • Jesús Otero
    • 2
  • Enrique Colado
    • 3
    • 4
  • Celestino González
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Functional Biology. Physiology AreaUniversity of OviedoOviedoSpain
  2. 2.Unit of Transplants, Cell Therapy and Regenerative MedicineCentral University Hospital of AsturiasOviedoSpain
  3. 3.Service of HematologyCentral University Hospital of AsturiasOviedoSpain
  4. 4.Department of Laboratory MedicineCentral University Hospital of AsturiasOviedoSpain
  5. 5.Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Sahlgrenska AcademyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  6. 6.Prostate Cancer InstituteNational University of IrelandGalwayIreland

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