Inhibition of Autophagy by Chloroquine Enhances the Antitumor Efficacy of Sorafenib in Glioblastoma
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and common brain tumor in adults. Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inhibition of STAT3 signaling in glioblastoma cells and in intracranial gliomas. However, sorafenib also induces cell autophagy. Due to the dual roles of autophagy in tumor cell survival and death, the therapeutic effect of sorafenib on glioblastoma is uncertain. Here, we combined sorafenib treatment in GBM cells (U373 and LN229) and tumors with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. We found that blockage of autophagy further inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest the possibility of combination treatment with sorafenib and autophagy inhibitors for GBM.
KeywordsGlioblastoma Sorafenib Autophagy Apoptosis
This work was supported by Grants from Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, China (2011Q047).
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