Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 27, Issue 8, pp 1117–1126 | Cite as

Potential Interaction Between the GARS-AIRS-GART Gene and CP2/LBP-1c/LSF Transcription Factor in Down Syndrome-related Alzheimer Disease

Original Paper

Abstract

(1) GARS-AIRS-GART is an important candidate gene in studies of Down syndrome (DS)-related Alzheimer’s disease (AD), due to its chromosomal localization (21q22.1) in the Down syndrome critical region, involvement in de novo purine biosynthesis, and over-expression in DS brain. The aim of this study was to identify factor(s) likely to enhance transcription of GARS-AIRS-GART in DS-related AD. (2) Based on a bio-informatics approach, the PromoterInspector, Promoter Scan II, and EBI toolbox CpG plot software programs were used to identify GARS-AIRS-GART sequences important for gene transcription. Transcription factor binding motifs within these regions were mapped with the help of the MatInspector and TFSEARCH programs. Factors implicated in neurodevelopment or neurodegeneration were the focus of attention, and mining of human (T1Dbase) and murine (GNF) expression databases revealed information on the regional distribution of these factors and their relative abundance vis-a-vis GARS-AIRS-GART. (3) The Leader-binding protein 1-c (LBP-1c/CP2/LSF) emerged as a promising candidate from these studies, as MatInspector and TFSEARCH analyses revealed a total of four CP2 binding sites with potential for functional interaction(s) within the promoter and CpG islands of GARS-AIRS-GART. Furthermore, two of these sites harbor sequences for methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes, which suggest that methylation status may, in part, regulate CP2-mediated transcription of GARS-AIRS-GART. A search of T1Dbase and GNF expression databases reveals co-expression of CP2 and GARS-AIRS-GART in brain regions relevant to DS-related AD. (4) The virtual screen identified CP2/LBP-1c/LSF as a factor that likely mediates enhanced transcription of GARS-AIRS-GART in DS-related AD.

Keywords

Down syndrome GARS-AIRS-GART CP2 Astrocytic hypertrophy Oxidative stress Alzheimer’s disease LBP-1c/CP2/LSF 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Disha Banerjee is the recipient of a Senior Research Fellowship from CSIR grant 27(0131)/04/EMR-II awarded to Krishnadas Nandagopal. We thank the anonymous referee for helpful comments on our manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Manovikas Biomedical Research and Diagnostic CentreManovikas Kendra Rehabilitation and Research Institute for the HandicappedKolkataIndia

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