Imaging Brain Activity With Voltage- and Calcium-Sensitive Dyes
- 1.1k Downloads
This paper presents three examples of imaging brain activity with voltage- or calcium-sensitive dyes and then discusses the methodological aspects of the measurements that are needed to achieve an optimal signal-to-noise ratio.
Internally injected voltage-sensitive dye can be used to monitor membrane potential in the dendrites of invertebrate and vertebrate neurons in in vitro preparations.
Both invertebrate and vertebrate ganglia can be bathed in voltage-sensitive dyes to stain all of the cell bodies in the preparation. These dyes can then be used to follow the spike activity of many neurons simultaneously while the preparations are generating behaviors.
Calcium-sensitive dyes that are internalized into olfactory receptor neurons in the nose will, after several days, be transported to the nerve terminals of these cells in the olfactory bulb. There they can be used to measure the input from the nose to the bulb.
Three kinds of noise are discussed. a. Shot noise from the random emission of photons from the preparation. b. Vibrational noise from external sources. c. Noise that occurs in the absence of light, the dark noise.
Three different parts of the light measuring apparatus are discussed: the light sources, the optics, and the cameras.
The major effort presently underway to improve the usefulness of optical recordings of brain activity are to find methods for staining individual cell types in the brain. Most of these efforts center around fluorescent protein sensors of activity.
Keywordsoptical recording voltage-sensitive dyes calcium-sensitive dyes signal-to-noise ratio
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Baker, B. J., Cohen, L. B., Pieribone, V., and Kosmidis, E. (2004). Expression of the GFP-voltage sensor SPARC in HEK 293 cells. Biophysical J. 86:425A–425A Part 2 Suppl. S.Google Scholar
- Bischofberger, J., and Jonas, P. (1997). Action potential propagation into the presynaptic dendrites of rat mitral cells. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 504:359–365.Google Scholar
- Boyle, M. B., and Cohen, L. B. (1980). Birefringence signals that monitor membrane potential in cell bodies of molluscan neurons. Fed. Proc. 39:2130.Google Scholar
- Braddick, H. J. J. (1960). Photoelectric photometry. Rep. Prog. Phys. 23:154–175.Google Scholar
- Dainty, J. C. (1984). Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
- Denk, W., Piston, D. W., and Webb, W. (1995). Two-photon molecular excitation in laser-scanning microscopy. In Pawley, J. W. (ed.), Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, Plenum, New York, pp. 445–458.Google Scholar
- Fromherz, P., Dambacher, K. H., Ephardt, H., Lambacher, A., Muller, C. O., Neigl, R., Schaden, H., Schenk, O., and Vetter, T. (1991). Fluorescent dyes as probes of voltage transients in neuron membranes: Progress report. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 95:1333–1345.Google Scholar
- Hamer, F. M. (1964). The Cyanine Dyes and Related Compounds, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
- Hickie, C., Wenner, P., O’Donovan, M., Tsau, Y., Fang, J., and Cohen, L. B. (1996). Optical monitoring of activity from individual and identified populations of neurons retrogradely labeled with voltage-sensitive dyes. Abstr. Soc. Neurosci. 22:321.Google Scholar
- Iijima, T., Ichikawa, M., and Matsumoto, G. (1989). Optical monitoring of LTP and related phenomena. Abstr. Soc. Neurosci. 15:398.Google Scholar
- Inoue, S. (1986). Video Microscopy, Plenum, New York. p. 128.Google Scholar
- Kazan, B., and Knoll, M. (1968). Electronic Image Storage, Academic, New York.Google Scholar
- Kupfermann, I., Pinsker, H., Castellucci, V., and Kandel, E. R. (1971). Central and peripheral control of gill movements in Aplysia. Science 174(1):252–256.Google Scholar
- Loew, L. M., Cohen, L. B., Dix, J., Fluhler, E. N., Montana, V., Salama, G., and Wu, J. Y. (1992). A napthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations. J. Membr. Biol. 130:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Magee, J. C., Christofi, G., Miyakawa, H., Christie, B., Lasser-Ross, N., and Johnston, D. (1995). Subthreshold synaptic activation of voltage-gated calcium channels mediate a localized calcium influx into dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. J. Neurophysiol. 74:1335–1342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malmstadt, H. V., Enke, C. G., Crouch, S. R., and Harlick, G. (1974). Electronic Measurements for Scientists, Benjamin, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
- Petran, M., and Hadravsky, M. (1966). Czechoslovakian Patent 7720.Google Scholar
- Salzberg, B. M. (1983). Optical recording of electrical activity in neurons using molecular probes. In Barker, J. L., and McKelvy, J. F. (eds.), Current Methods in Cellular Neurobiology, Wiley, New York, pp. 139–187.Google Scholar
- Shaw, R. (1979). Photographic detectors. Appl. Opt. Opt. Eng. 7:121–154.Google Scholar
- Tank, D., and Ahmed, Z. (1985). Multiple-site monitoring of activity in cultured neurons. Biophys. J. 47:476A.Google Scholar
- Vučinić, D., Cohen, L. B., and Kosmidis, E. K. (in preparation). Presynaptic centre-surround inhibition shapes sensory input to the mouse olfactory bulb.Google Scholar
- Wachowiak, M., and Cohen, L. B. (2001). Representation of odorants by receptor neuron input to the mouse olfactory bulb. Neuron 32:725–737.Google Scholar
- Waggoner, A. S., and Grinvald, A. (1977). Mechanisms of rapid optical changes of potential sensitive dyes. Annu. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 303:217–241.Google Scholar
- Wu, J. Y., and Cohen, L. B. (1993). Fast multisite optical measurements of membrance potential. In Fluorescent and Luminescent Probes for Biological Activity., W. T. Mason ed., Academic Press, London, 389–404.Google Scholar