Advertisement

High-efficiency organosolv degumming of ramie fiber by autocatalysis of high-boiling alcohols: an evaluation study of solvents

Abstract

Ramie was subjected to degumming treatment with high-boiling alcohols, which was an innovative way ahead ascribed to organosolv’s innate superiorities, namely the capability to dissolve non-cellulosic biomass obtaining separation of high-purity cellulose fibers, as well as green and ease of recovery. In the current research, effects of degumming processes with four sorts of alcohol solvents on the ramie fiber properties [degree of polymerization (DP), tenacity, linear density] and the possibility of reutilization of degumming solution were studied. Results showed that the organosolv degumming process efficiently removed non-cellulosic components and improved the DP value. In terms of the degummed fibers, except 1,4-butanediol treated fibers due to the serious damage of 1,4-butanediol to fibers, the cellulose purity was over 95%, the tenacity was 6.14–8.27 cN/dtex, and the linear density was less than 7.2 dtex. Besides, glycol treated fibers performed the most positive mechanical properties (8.27 cN/dtex) and glycerol treated fibers showed the lowest residual gum content (3.28%). Notably, the fiber still showed excellent performance after the sixth cycle treatment with glycerol, that was 3.62% of residual gum content and 4.45 cN/dtex of tenacity, which fully met the requirement of spinning process. Considering attractive characteristics of eco-friendly, high degumming efficiency, outstanding performances, and solvent recycling, this emerging method could inspire the potential application of alcohols for natural fiber isolation.

Graphic abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

References

  1. Amiralian N, Annamalai PK, Memmott P, Martin DJ (2015) Isolation of cellulose nanofibrils from Triodia pungens via different mechanical methods. Cellulose 22:2483–2498

  2. Aslan M, Sørensen BF, Bo M (2011) Strength variability of single flax fibres. J Mater Sci 46:6344–6354

  3. Aziz S, Sarkanen K (1989) Organosolv pulping: a review. Tappi J 72:169–175

  4. Bajpai P (2011) Environmentally friendly production of pulp and paper. Wiley, New York

  5. Benkő Z, Andersson A, Szengyel Z, Gáspár M, Réczey K, Stålbrand H (2007) Heat extraction of corn fiber hemicellulose. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 137:253–265

  6. Bhattacharya S, Shah S (2007) Degumming of decorticated ramie: effects of alkalis on gummy compositions vis-à-vis their properties. J Text Inst 98:431–436

  7. Bledzki A, Gassan J (1999) Composites reinforced with cellulose based fibres. Prog Polym Sci 24:221–274

  8. Bonawitz ND, Chapple C (2010) The genetics of lignin biosynthesis: connecting genotype to phenotype. Annu Rev Genet 44:337–363

  9. Bozell JJ, Black SK, Myers M, Cahill D, Miller WP, Park S (2011) Solvent fractionation of renewable woody feedstocks: organosolv generation of biorefinery process streams for the production of biobased chemicals. Biomass Bioenergy 35:4197–4208

  10. Britt PF, Buchanan Iii A, Thomas KB, Lee S-K (1995) Pyrolysis mechanisms of lignin: surface-immobilized model compound investigation of acid-catalyzed and free-radical reaction pathways. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 33:1–19

  11. Brühlmann F, Leupin M, Erismann KH, Fiechter A (2000) Enzymatic degumming of ramie bast fibers. J Biotechnol 76:43–50

  12. Chen Y, Zou C, Mastalerz M, Hu S, Gasaway C, Tao X (2015) Applications of micro-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the geological sciences—a review. Int J Mol Sci 16:30223–30250

  13. Cheng F, Zhao X, Hu Y (2018) Lignocellulosic biomass delignification using aqueous alcohol solutions with the catalysis of acidic ionic liquids: a comparison study of solvents. Bioresour Technol 249:969–975

  14. Chirayil CJ, Joy J, Mathew L, Mozetic M, Koetz J, Thomas S (2014) Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibrils from Helicteres isora plant. Ind Crops Prod 59:27–34

  15. Choi HY, Lee JS (2012) Effects of surface treatment of ramie fibers in a ramie/poly (lactic acid) composite. Fibers Polym 13:217–223

  16. Chum HL, Douglas L, Feinberg D, Schroeder H (1985) Evaluation of pretreatments of biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. [Organosolv process, wet oxidation, and steam explosion of wood chips]. Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden

  17. de Carvalho DM, de Queiroz JH, Colodette JL (2016) Assessment of alkaline pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. Ind Crops Prod 94:932–941

  18. Demirba A (1998) Aqueous glycerol delignification of wood chips and ground wood. Bioresour Technol 63:179–185

  19. Deng L et al (2012) Effect of chemical and biological degumming on the adsorption of heavy metal by cellulose xanthogenates prepared from Eichhornia crassipes. Bioresour Technol 107:41–45

  20. El Achaby M, El Miri N, Hannache H, Gmouh S, Trabadelo V, Aboulkas A, Youcef HB (2018) Cellulose nanocrystals from Miscanthus fibers: insights into rheological, physico-chemical properties and polymer reinforcing ability. Cellulose 25:6603–6619

  21. Faix O (1991) Classification of lignins from different botanical origins by FT-IR spectroscopy. Holzforschung 45:21–28

  22. Fan X-S, Liu Z-W, Liu Z-T, Lu J (2010) A novel chemical degumming process for ramie bast fiber. Text Res J 80:2046–2051

  23. Fan P, He F, Yang Y, Ao M, Ouyang J, Liu Y, Yu L (2015) In-situ microbial degumming technology with Bacillus sp. HG-28 for industrial production of ramie fibers. Biochem Eng J 97:50–58

  24. French AD (2014) Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs. Cellulose 21:885–896

  25. Gilarranz M, Oliet M, Rodríguez F, Tijero J (1999) Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus. Can J Chem Eng 77:515–521

  26. Gu J, Catchmark JM (2012) Impact of hemicelluloses and pectin on sphere-like bacterial cellulose assembly. Carbohydr Polym 88:547–557

  27. Huang X, Korányi TI, Boot MD, Hensen EJ (2014) Catalytic depolymerization of lignin in supercritical ethanol. ChemSusChem 7:2276–2288

  28. Jiang W et al (2018) A green degumming process of ramie. Ind Crops Prod 120:131–134

  29. Johansson A, Aaltonen O, Ylinen P (1987) Organosolv pulping—methods and pulp properties. Biomass 13:45–65

  30. Jørgensen H, Kristensen JB, Felby C (2007) Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars: challenges and opportunities. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 1:119–134

  31. Kajimoto J, Sano Y (2001) HBS pulping (3)-accelerated effect of RHBS on delignification. Jpn Tappi J 55(1470–1479):1026

  32. Kajimoto J, Sano Y, Widodo W, Kishimoto T, Uraki Y (2000) HBS pulping (1)-pulping of softwood. Jpn Tappi J 54:88–95

  33. Kang SY, Epps H (2009) Effect of scouring and enzyme treatment on moisture regain percentage of naturally colored cottons. J Text Inst Proc Abstr 100:598–606

  34. Kassab Z, Boujemaoui A, Youcef HB, Hajlane A, Hannache H, El Achaby M (2019) Production of cellulose nanofibrils from alfa fibers and its nanoreinforcement potential in polymer nanocomposites. Cellulose 26:9567–9581

  35. Kim KH, Dutta T, Walter ED, Isern NG, Cort JR, Simmons BA, Singh S (2017) Chemoselective methylation of phenolic hydroxyl group prevents quinone methide formation and repolymerization during lignin depolymerization. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 5:3913–3919

  36. Kim K-J, Hong S-B, Eom T-J (2018) Preparation of eucalyptus pulp by mild condition of low-temperature, atmospheric pressure, and short-reaction-time with high-boiling-point solvent and pulp properties. Cellulose 25:753–761

  37. Kobayashi T, Kohn B, Holmes L, Faulkner R, Davis M, Maciel GE (2011) Molecular-level consequences of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid at various temperatures. Energy Fuels 25:1790–1797

  38. Kucuk M, Demirbas A (1993) Delignification of Ailanthus altissima and Spruce orientalis with glycerol of alkaline glycerol at atmospheric pressure. Cellul Chem Technol 27:679–686

  39. Li Z, Yu C (2014) Effect of peroxide and softness modification on properties of ramie fiber. Fibers Polym 15:2105–2111

  40. Li R, Fei J, Cai Y, Li Y, Feng J, Yao J (2009) Cellulose whiskers extracted from mulberry: a novel biomass production. Carbohydr Polym 76:94–99

  41. Li Z et al (2016) High-efficiency ramie fiber degumming and self-powered degumming wastewater treatment using triboelectric nanogenerator. Nano Energy 22:548–557

  42. Liu L, Xiang Y, Zhang R, Li B, Yu J (2017) Effect of NaClO dosage on the structure of degummed hemp fibers by 2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy-laccase degumming. Text Res J. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040517517736476

  43. Liu L, Xiang Y, Zhang R, Li B, Yu J (2019) Effect of NaClO dosage on the structure of degummed hemp fibers by 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy-laccase degumming. Text Res J 89:76–86

  44. Lu Q et al (2012) Investigation of the effects of different organosolv pulping methods on antioxidant capacity and extraction efficiency of lignin. Food Chem 131:313–317

  45. Mantanis GI, Young RA, Rowell RM (1994) Swelling of wood. Part II. Swelling in organic liquids. Holzforschung 48:480–490

  46. McDonough TJ (1992) The chemistry of organosolv delignification. In: TAPPI Solvent pulping seminar

  47. Meng C, Li Z, Wang C, Yu C (2016) Sustained-release alkali source used in the oxidation degumming of ramie. Text Res J 87:1155–1164. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040517516648512

  48. Meng C, Li Z, Wang C, Yu C (2017) Sustained-release alkali source used in the oxidation degumming of ramie. Text Res J 87:1155–1164

  49. Meng C, Yang J, Zhang B, Yu C (2018) Rapid and energy-saving preparation of ramie fiber in TEMPO-mediated selective oxidation system. Ind Crops Prod 126:143–150

  50. Meng C, Zhong N, Hu J, Yu C, Saddler JN (2019) The effects of metal elements on ramie fiber oxidation degumming and the potential of using spherical bacterial cellulose for metal removal. J. Clean Prod 206:498–507

  51. Mohammadi-Rovshandeh J, Talebizadeh A, Rezayati-Charani P (2005) Pulping of rice straw by high boiling solvents in atmospheric pressure. Iran Polym J 14:223–227

  52. Mukhopadhyay A, Dutta N, Chattopadhyay D, Chakrabarti K (2013) Degumming of ramie fiber and the production of reducing sugars from waste peels using nanoparticle supplemented pectate lyase. Bioresour Technol 137:202–208

  53. Müller G, Polle A (2009) Imaging of lignin and cellulose in hardwood using Fourier transform infrared microscopy—comparison of two methods. N Z J Sci 39:225–231

  54. Nie X-N, Liu J, She D, Sun R-C, Xu F (2013) Physicochemical and structural characterization of hemicelluloses isolated by different alcohols from rice straw. BioResources 8:3817–3832

  55. Nishiyama Y, Langan P, Chanzy H (2002) Crystal structure and hydrogen-bonding system in cellulose Iβ from synchrotron X-ray and neutron fiber diffraction. J Am Chem Soc 124:9074–9082

  56. Obama P, Ricochon G, Muniglia L, Brosse N (2012) Combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol organosolv pretreatments: effect on lignin structures, delignification yields and cellulose-to-glucose conversion. Bioresour Technol 112:156–163

  57. Oliet M, Garcıa J, Rodrıguez F, Gilarrranz M (2002) Solvent effects in autocatalyzed alcohol–water pulping: comparative study between ethanol and methanol as delignifying agents. Biochem Eng J 87:157–162

  58. Pan X, Kadla JF, Ehara K, Gilkes N, Saddler JN (2006) Organosolv ethanol lignin from hybrid poplar as a radical scavenger: relationship between lignin structure, extraction conditions, and antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 54:5806–5813

  59. Papatheofanous M, Koullas D, Koukios E, Billa E, Monties B (1993) Fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass components by prehydrolysis-organosolv delignification. National Renewable Energy, Golden

  60. Paszner L, Behera N (1985) Beating behaviour and sheet strength development of coniferous organosolv fibers. Holzforschung 39:51–61

  61. Peng F, Ren J-L, Xu F, Bian J, Peng P, Sun R-C (2009) Comparative study of hemicelluloses obtained by graded ethanol precipitation from sugarcane bagasse. J Agric Food Chem 57:6305–6317

  62. Ramesh M (2016) Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fibre based bio-materials: a review on processing and properties. Prog Mater Sci 78:1–92

  63. Rastegarfar N, Behrooz R, Bahramifar N (2015) Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from soda-AQ pulping of wheat straw. Environ Monit Assess 187:45

  64. Rodríguez F, Gilarranz M, Oliet M, Tijero J (1998) Pulping of lignocellulosics by organosolv processes. Res Dev Chem Eng 2:9–17

  65. Rodríguez A, Serrano L, Moral A, Jiménez L (2008) Pulping of rice straw with high-boiling point organosolv solvents. Biochem Eng J 42:243–247

  66. Romaní A, Garrote G, López F, Parajó JC (2011) Eucalyptus globulus wood fractionation by autohydrolysis and organosolv delignification. Bioresour Technol 102:5896–5904

  67. Saberikhah E, Mohammadi Rovshandeh J, Rezayati-Charani P (2011) Organosolv pulping of wheat straw by glycerol. Cellul Chem Technol 45:67

  68. Saravanakumar S, Kumaravel A, Nagarajan T, Sudhakar P, Baskaran R (2013) Characterization of a novel natural cellulosic fiber from Prosopis juliflora bark. Carbohydr Polym 92:1928–1933

  69. Sarkanen KV (1990) Chemistry of solvent pulping. Tappi J 73:215–219

  70. Segal L, Creely J, Martin A Jr, Conrad C (1959) An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the X-ray diffractometer. Text Res J 29:786–794

  71. Shen M, Wang L, Long J-J (2015) Biodegumming of ramie fiber with pectinases enhanced by oxygen plasma. J Clean Prod 101:395–403

  72. Song Y, Jiang W, Zhang Y, Ben H, Han G, Ragauskas AJ (2018) Isolation and characterization of cellulosic fibers from kenaf bast using steam explosion and Fenton oxidation treatment. Cellulose 25:4979–4992

  73. Sturgeon MR et al (2014) A mechanistic investigation of acid-catalyzed cleavage of aryl-ether linkages: implications for lignin depolymerization in acidic environments. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2:472–485

  74. Sun N, Rahman M, Qin Y, Maxim ML, Rodríguez H, Rogers RD (2009) Complete dissolution and partial delignification of wood in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Green Chem 11:646–655

  75. Uraki Y, Sano Y (1999) Polyhydric alcohol pulping at atmospheric pressure: an effective method for organosolv pulping of softwoods. Holzforschung 53:411–415

  76. Vila C, Santos V, Parajó JC (2003) Simulation of an organosolv pulping process: generalized material balances and design calculations. Ind Eng Chem Res 42:349–356

  77. Volynets B, Dahman Y (2011) Assessment of pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw as a sugar source for bioprocess industry. Int J Energy Energy Environ 2:427–446

  78. Wang J, Liu J, Ni L, Li J (2018) Thermopressed binderless fiberboards from wheat straw by adding black liquor. Wood Res 63:1021–1032

  79. Yang B, Wyman CE (2008) Pretreatment: the key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 2:26–40

  80. Yuan J, Yu Y, Wang Q, Fan X, Chen S, Wang P (2013) Modification of ramie with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid. Fibers Polym 14:1254–1260

  81. Yunos NSHM et al (2017) Enhanced oil recovery and lignocellulosic quality from oil palm biomass using combined pretreatment with compressed water and steam. J Clean Prod 142:3834–3849

  82. Zhang J, Zhang J (2010) Effect of refined processing on the physical and chemical properties of hemp bast fibers. Text Res J 80:744–753

  83. Zhang Z, O’Hara IM, Doherty WOS (2013a) Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by acidified aqueous polyol solutions. Cellulose 20:3179–3190

  84. Zhang ZY, O’Hara IM, Rackemann DW, Doherty WOS (2013b) Low temperature pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at atmospheric pressure using mixtures of ethylene carbonate and ethylene glycol. Green Chem 15:255–264

  85. Zhang K, Pei Z, Wang D (2016) Organic solvent pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels and biochemicals: a review. Bioresour Technol 199:21–33

  86. Zhang Y et al (2018) One-step fractionation of the main components of bamboo by formic acid-based organosolv process under pressure. J Wood Chem Technol. https://doi.org/10.1080/02773813.2017.1388823

  87. Zhao X, Cheng K, Liu D (2009) Organosolv pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 82:815

  88. Zhao X, Li S, Wu R, Liu D (2017) Organosolv fractionating pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient enzymatic saccharification: chemistry, kinetics, and substrate structures. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 11:567–590

  89. Zheng Y, Zhang Z, Luo Z-W (1988) Optimizing the complex formulation of boiling-off liquor for ramie chemical degumming. Text Res J 58:663–666

  90. Zheng L, Du Y, Zhang J (2001) Degumming of ramie fibers by alkalophilic bacteria and their polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Bioresour Technol 78:89–94

  91. Zou X, Qin T, Huang L, Zhang X, Yang Z, Wang Y (2009) Mechanisms and main regularities of biomass liquefaction with alcoholic solvents. Energy Fuels 23:5213–5218

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the following financial support for the research and authorship of this article: This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Number EG2018006), Starting Research Fund from Donghua University (Grant Number 287-07-005707), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant CUSFDH-D-2017014).

Author information

Correspondence to Ruiyun Zhang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOC 39 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Qu, Y., Zhao, S., Shi, Z. et al. High-efficiency organosolv degumming of ramie fiber by autocatalysis of high-boiling alcohols: an evaluation study of solvents. Cellulose (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-020-03090-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Ramie fiber
  • Alcohol degumming
  • Autocatalysis
  • Eco-friendly
  • High-purity cellulose
  • Reutilization