Global air pollution poses a serious risk to human health. Among the variety of types of pollution, inhalable particulate matter (PM 2.5) is proved to be extremely harmful. In this work, a simple method was designed to synthesize a novel air filter, which composed of cellulose acetate and poly (ionic liquids) by using the technique of macromolecular design and electrostatic spinning process. The introduction of poly (ionic liquids) effectively reduced the diameter of fibers and thus obtains nano-fibrous filters. The removal rate of PM 10 and PM 2.5 particle by the filters reached 99.65% and 97.94%, respectively. Furthermore, the filters exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and no obvious cytotoxicity was observed in vitro culturing cell. After multiple recycling, the filters still maintained excellent antimicrobial properties and fibrous morphology due to the stable covalent bonds between cellulose acetate and poly (ionic liquids). This is a novel strategy to prepare high-quality air filters, which have great potential applications in air purification.
We fabricated a kind of green electrospinning material with stable antibacterial properties through organic synthesis and molecular design. The introduction of poly (ionic liquids) effectively reduces the diameter of fibers and thus obtains nano-fibrous filters. The removal rate of PM 10 and PM 2.5 particle by the filters reached 99.65% and 97.94%, respectively. Furthermore, the filters exhibit excellent antibacterial properties against E. coli and S. aureus, and no obvious cytotoxicity is observed in vitro culturing cell. After multiple recycling, the filters still maintain excellent antimicrobial properties and fibrous morphology.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Arca HC, Mosquera-Giraldo LI, Bi V, Xu D, Taylor LS, Edgar KJ (2018) Pharmaceutical applications of cellulose ethers and cellulose ether esters. Biomacromol 19(7):2351–2376. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.8b00517
Bazbouz MB, Taylor M, Baker D, Ries ME, Goswami P (2019) Dry-jet wet electrospinning of native cellulose microfibers with macroporous structures from ionic liquids. J Appl Polym Sci. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.47153
Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope CA 3rd, Brook JR, Bhatnagar A, Diez-Roux AV, Holguin F, Hong Y, Luepker RV, Mittleman MA, Peters A, Siscovick D, Smith SC Jr, Whitsel L, Kaufman JDE (2010) American Heart Association Council on, C.o.t.K.i.C.D. Prevention, P.A. Council on Nutrition and Metabolism. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: an update to the scientific statement from the american heart association. Circulation 121(21):2331–2378. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0b013e3181dbece1
Cheng Y-Y, Du C-H, Wu C-J, Sun K-X, Chi N-P (2018) Improving the hydrophilic and antifouling properties of poly(vinyl chloride) membranes by atom transfer radical polymerization grafting of poly(ionic liquid) brushes. Polym Adv Technol 29(1):623–631. https://doi.org/10.1002/pat.4172
De France KJ, Babi M, Vapaavuori J, Hoare T, Moran-Mirabal J, Cranston ED (2019) 2.5D hierarchical structuring of nanocomposite hydrogel films containing cellulose nanocrystals. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 11(6):6325–6335. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b16232
Elshaarawy RFM, Mustafa FHA, Sofy AR, Hmed AA, Janiak C (2019) A new synthetic antifouling coatings integrated novel aminothiazole-functionalized ionic liquids motifs with enhanced antibacterial performance. J Environ Chem Eng. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2018.11.044
Fan X, Wang Y, Kong L, Fu X, Zheng M, Liu T, Zhong W-H, Pan S (2018) A nanoprotein-functionalized hierarchical composite air filter. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 6(9):11606–11613. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b01827
Fang H, Wang J, Li L, Xu L, Wu Y, Wang Y, Fei X, Tian J, Li Y (2019) A novel high-strength poly(ionic liquid)/PVA hydrogel dressing for antibacterial applications. Chem Eng J 365:153–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.02.030
Gu GQ, Han CB, Lu CX, He C, Jiang T, Gao ZL, Li CJ, Wang ZL (2017) Triboelectric nanogenerator enhanced nanofiber air filters for efficient particulate matter removal. ACS Nano 11(6):6211–6217. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.7b02321
Han H, Zhu J, De-Qun W, Li F-X, Wang X-L, Jian-Yong Yu, Qin X-H (2019) Inherent guanidine nanogels with durable antibacterial and bacterially antiadhesive properties. Adv Funct Mater. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201806594
Hu J, Huang L, Chen M, Liao H, Zhang H, Wang S, Zhang Q, Ying Q (2017) Premature mortality attributable to particulate matter in China: source contributions and responses to reductions. Environ Sci Technol 51(17):9950–9959. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b03193
Jiang F, Kittle JD, Tan X, Esker AR, Roman M (2013) Effects of sulfate groups on the adsorption and activity of cellulases on cellulose substrates. Langmuir ACS J Surf Colloids 29(10):3280–3291. https://doi.org/10.1021/la3040193
Jing L, Shim K, Toe CY, Fang T, Zhao C, Amal R, Sun KN, Kim JH, Ng YH (2016) Electrospun polyacrylonitrile-ionic liquid nanofibers for superior PM2.5 capture capacity. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8(11):7030–7036. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b12313
Khalid B, Bai X, Wei H, Huang Y, Wu H, Cui Y (2017) Direct blow-spinning of nanofibers on a window screen for highly efficient PM2.5 removal. Nano Lett 17(2):1140–1148. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04771
Li X, Anderson P, Jhong H-RM, Paster M, Stubbins JF, Kenis PJA (2016) Greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency, and cost of synthetic fuel production using electrochemical CO2 conversion and the Fischer–Tropsch process. Energy Fuels 30(7):5980–5989. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00665
Li Q, Xie S, Serem WK, Naik MT, Liu L, Yuan JS (2017) Quality carbon fibers from fractionated lignin. Green Chem 19(7):1628–1634. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6gc03555h
Li X, Wang XX, Yue TT, Xu Y, Zhao ML, Yu M, Ramakrishna S, Long YZ (2019) Waterproof-breathable PTFE nano- and microfiber membrane as high efficiency PM2.5 filter. Polymers (Basel). https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11040590
Liu K, Liu C, Hsu PC, Xu J, Kong B, Wu T, Zhang R, Zhou G, Huang W, Sun J, Cui Y (2018) Core-shell nanofibrous materials with high particulate matter removal efficiencies and thermally triggered flame retardant properties. ACS Cent Sci 4(7):894–898. https://doi.org/10.1021/acscentsci.8b00285
Lopez AM, Cowan MG, Gin DL, Noble RD (2018) Phosphonium-based poly(ionic liquid)/ionic liquid ion gel membranes: influence of structure and ionic liquid loading on ion conductivity and light gas separation performance. J Chem Eng Data 63(5):1154–1162. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jced.7b00541
Lu Z, Su Z, Song S, Zhao Y, Ma S, Zhang M (2017) Toward high-performance fibrillated cellulose-based air filter via constructing spider-web-like structure with the aid of TBA during freeze-drying process. Cellulose 25(1):619–629. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-017-1561-x
Ma S, Zhang M, Nie J, Yang B, Song S, Lu P (2018) Multifunctional cellulose-based air filters with high loadings of metal–organic frameworks prepared by in situ growth method for gas adsorption and antibacterial applications. Cellulose 25(10):5999–6010. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-018-1982-1
Ma S, Zhang M, Nie J, Tan J, Yang B, Song S (2019) Design of double-component metal–organic framework air filters with PM2.5 capture, gas adsorption and antibacterial capacities. Carbohydr Polym 203:415–422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.09.039
Malviya RM (2018) Nano-fiber filters for automotive applications 1. https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-28-0041
Napso S, Rein DM, Fu Z, Radulescu A, Cohen Y (2018) Structural analysis of cellulose-coated oil-in-water emulsions fabricated from molecular solution. Langmuir ACS J Surf Colloids 34(30):8857–8865. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b01325
Osaka Y, Iwai K, Tsujiguchi T, Kodama A, Li X, Huang H (2019) Basic study on exhaust gas purification by utilizing plasma assisted MnO2 filter for zero-emission diesel. Sep Purif Technol 215:108–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2018.12.077
Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen ZJ, Beelen R, Samoli E, Stafoggia M, Weinmayr G, Hoffmann B, Fischer P, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Brunekreef B, Xun WW, Katsouyanni K, Dimakopoulou K, Sommar J, Forsberg B, Modig L, Oudin A, Oftedal B, Schwarze PE, Nafstad P, De Faire U, Pedersen NL, Östenson C-G, Fratiglioni L, Penell J, Korek M, Pershagen G, Eriksen KT, Sørensen M, Tjønneland A, Ellermann T, Eeftens M, Peeters PH, Meliefste K, Wang M, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Key TJ, de Hoogh K, Concin H, Nagel G, Vilier A, Grioni S, Krogh V, Tsai M-Y, Ricceri F, Sacerdote C, Galassi C, Migliore E, Ranzi A, Cesaroni G, Badaloni C, Forastiere F, Tamayo I, Amiano P, Dorronsoro M, Trichopoulou A, Bamia C, Vineis P, Hoek G (2013) Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Lancet Oncol 14(9):813–822. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(13)70279-1
Seo JM, Arumugam GK, Khan S, Heiden PA (2009) Comparison of the effects of an ionic liquid and triethylbenzylammonium chloride on the properties of electrospun fibers, 1—poly(lactic acid). Macromol Mater Eng 294(1):35–44. https://doi.org/10.1002/mame.200800198
Shanmugam K, Gadhamshetty V, Yadav P, Athanassiadis D, Tysklind M, Upadhyayula VKK (2019) Advanced high strength steel and carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite body in white for passenger cars: environmental performance and sustainable return on investment under different propulsion modes. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 7:4951–4963
Sidheswaran MA, Destaillats H, Sullivan DP, Cohn S, Fisk WJ (2012) Energy efficient indoor VOC air cleaning with activated carbon fiber (ACF) filters. Build Environ 47:357–367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.07.002
Sobhanadhas S, Kesavan LL, Lastusaari M, Fardim P (2019) Layered double hydroxide-cellulose hybrid beads: a novel catalyst for topochemical grafting of pulp fibers. ACS Omega 4(1):320–330. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b03061
Song N, Hou X, Chen L, Cui S, Shi L, Ding P (2017) A green plastic constructed from cellulose and functionalized graphene with high thermal conductivity. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9(21):17914–17922. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b02675
Tan NPB, Paclijan SS, Ali HNM, Hallazgo CMJS, Lopez CJF, Ebora YC (2019) Solution blow spinning (SBS) nanofibers for composite air filter masks. ACS Appl Nano Mater 2(4):2475–2483. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.9b00207
Tort S, Acarturk F (2016) Preparation and characterization of electrospun nanofibers containing glutamine. Carbohydr Polym 152:802–814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.07.028
Wang N, Zhu Z, Sheng J, Al-Deyab SS, Yu J, Ding B (2014) Superamphiphobic nanofibrous membranes for effective filtration of fine particles. J Colloid Interface Sci 428:41–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2014.04.026
Wang Z, Pan Z, Wang J, Zhao R (2016) A novel hierarchical structured poly(lactic acid)/titania fibrous membrane with excellent antibacterial activity and air filtration performance. J Nanomater 2016:1–17. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6272983
Wang A, Fan R, Zhou X, Hao S, Zheng X, Yang Y (2018a) Hot-pressing method to prepare imidazole-based Zn(II) metal-organic complexes coatings for highly efficient air filtration. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10(11):9744–9755. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b01287
Wang Z, Yan F, Pei H, Li J, Cui Z, He B (2018b) Antibacterial and environmentally friendly chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol blend membranes for air filtration. Carbohydr Polym 198:241–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.06.090
Wang K, Wang J, Li L, Xu L, Feng N, Wang Y, Fei X, Tian J, Li Y (2019) Synthesis of a novel anti-freezing, non-drying antibacterial hydrogel dressing by one-pot method. Chem Eng J 372:216–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.04.107
Xiong Z-C, Yang R-L, Zhu Y-J, Chen F-F, Dong L-Y (2017) Flexible hydroxyapatite ultralong nanowire-based paper for highly efficient and multifunctional air filtration. J Mater Chem A 5(33):17482–17491. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7ta03870d
Xue J, Wu T, Dai Y, Xia Y (2019) Electrospinning and electrospun nanofibers: methods, materials, and applications. Chem Rev 119(8):5298–5415. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.8b00593
Yang J, Xiong S, Qu T, Zhang Y, He X, Guo X, Zhao Q, Braun S, Chen J, Xu J, Li Y, Liu X, Duan C, Tang J, Fahlman M, Bao Q (2019) Extremely low-cost and green cellulose passivating perovskites for stable and high-performance solar cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 11(14):13491–13498. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b01740
Yoon Y, Kim S, Ahn KH, Ko KB, Kim KS (2016) Fabrication and characterization of micro-porous cellulose filters for indoor air quality control. Environ Technol 37(6):703–712. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2015.1078416
Zarrintaj P, Manouchehri S, Ahmadi Z, Saeb MR, Urbanska AM, Kaplan DL, Mozafari M (2018) Agarose-based biomaterials for tissue engineering. Carbohydr Polym 187:66–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.01.060
Zhang S, Tang N, Cao L, Yin X, Yu J, Ding B (2016) Highly integrated polysulfone/polyacrylonitrile/polyamide-6 air filter for multilevel physical sieving airborne particles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8(42):29062–29072. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b10094
Zhang Q, Li Q, Young TM, Harper DP, Wang AS (2019a) A novel method for fabricating an electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol)/cellulose nanocrystals composite nanofibrous filter with low air resistance for high-efficiency filtration of particulate matter. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b00605
Zhang S, Rind NA, Tang N, Liu H, Yin X, Yu J, Ding B (2019b) Electrospun nanofibers for air filtration. William Andrew Publishing, Norwich, pp 365–389. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-323-51270-1.00012-1
Zhu M, Han J, Wang F, Shao W, Xiong R, Zhang Q, Pan H, Yang Y, Samal SK, Zhang F, Huang C (2017) Electrospun nanofibers membranes for effective air filtration. Macromol Mater Eng 302(1):1600353. https://doi.org/10.1002/mame.201600353
Zhu F, Yan F, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Li C, Dong Y (2018a) Inhibition of PM2.5 emission from the combustion of waste materials. Energy Fuels 32(10):10941–10950. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b01231
Zhu M, Hua D, Pan H, Wang F, Manshian B, Soenen SJ, Xiong R, Huang C (2018b) Green electrospun and crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) composite membranes for antibacterial effective air filtration. J Colloid Interface Sci 511:411–423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2017.09.101
Zhu M, Xiong R, Huang C (2019) Bio-based and photocrosslinked electrospun antibacterial nanofibrous membranes for air filtration. Carbohydr Polym 205:55–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.09.075
This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 31800498, 31770635 and 31470604).
Conflict of interest
There are no conflicts to declare.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhu, M., Cao, Q., Liu, B. et al. A novel cellulose acetate/poly (ionic liquid) composite air filter. Cellulose (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-020-03034-8
- Cellulose acetate
- Poly (ionic liquids)
- Molecular design
- Air filter and antimicrobial