A method for isolating components of lignocellulose in hybrid poplar by using an organic solvent (γ-valerolactone) in combination with a solid organic acid (p-toluenesulfonic acid) is studied here. The combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) was used to measure the severity of the pretreatment conditions and to find the optimal reaction conditions (CHF = 54.99) by judging enzymatic saccharification and characterization of lignin residual. At this pretreatment strength, 91.67% hemicellulose and 86.14% lignin in lignocellulose were effectively removed, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose residue reached 84.84%. Hemicellulose was hydrolyzed to 4.39 g L−1 of xylose, and a portion was converted to 2.95 g L−1 of furfural and 3.59 g L−1 of acetic acid. The molecular weight, polydispersities and phenolic hydroxyl groups content of the isolated lignin were 1587 g mol−1, 1.04 and 3.64 mmol g−1 respectively, which indicated that the lignin had the potential to be a phenolic resin material and wood polyurethane foam. In summary, this method effectively separated three components of lignocellulose and obtained high purity cellulose and lignin.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abo BO, Gao M, Wang Y et al (2019) Lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol: an overview on pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation processes. Rev Environ Health 34:57–68. https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2018-0054
Alvira P, Tomás-Pejó E, Ballesteros M, Negro MJ (2010) Pretreatment technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzymatic hydrolysis: a review. Bioresour Technol 101:4851–4861. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.11.093
Angelini S, Ingles D, Gelosia M et al (2017) One-pot lignin extraction and modification in γ-valerolactone from steam explosion pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass. J Clean Prod 151:152–162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.03.062
Buschle-Diller G, Fanter C, Loth F (1995) Effect of cellulase on the pore structure of bead cellulose. Cellulose 2:179–203. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00813017
Chakar FS, Ragauskas AJ (2004) Review of current and future softwood kraft lignin process chemistry. Ind Crops Prod 20(2):131–141
Chen L, Zhu JY, Baez C et al (2016) Highly thermal-stable and functional cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils produced using fully recyclable organic acids. Green Chem 18:3835–3843. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6gc00687f
Dimmel DR, Schuller LF (1986) Structural/reactivity studies (I): soda reactions of lignin model compounds. J Wood Chem Technol 6:535–564. https://doi.org/10.1080/02773818608085244
Dou J, Bian H, Yelle DJ et al (2019) Lignin containing cellulose nanofibril production from willow bark at 80 °C using a highly recyclable acid hydrotrope. Ind Crops Prod 129:15–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.11.033
Dutra ED, Santos FA, Alencar BRA et al (2018) Alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass: status and perspectives. Biomass Convers Biorefinery 8:225–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-017-0277-3
El-Moustaqim M, El-Kaihal A, El-Marouani M et al (2018) Thermal and thermomechanical analyses of lignin. Sustain Chem Pharm 9:63–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scp.2018.06.002
French AD (2014) Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs. Cellulose 21:885–896. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-013-0030-4
French AD, Santiago Cintrón M (2013) Cellulose polymorphy, crystallite size, and the Segal Crystallinity Index. Cellulose 20:583–588. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-012-9833-y
Horváth IT, Mehdi H, Fábos V et al (2008) γ-Valerolactone—a sustainable liquid for energy and carbon-based chemicals. Green Chem 10:238–242. https://doi.org/10.1039/b712863k
Jacquet N, Maniet G, Vanderghem C, Delvigne F, Richel A (2015) Application of steam explosion as pretreatment on lignocellulosic material: a review. Ind Eng Chem Res 54(10):2593–2598
Ji H, Song Y, Zhang X, Tan T (2017) Using a combined hydrolysis factor to balance enzymatic saccharification and the structural characteristics of lignin during pretreatment of Hybrid poplar with a fully recyclable solid acid. Bioresour Technol 238:575–581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.04.092
Ji H, Dong C, Yang G, Pang Z (2018) Valorization of lignocellulosic biomass toward multipurpose fractionation: furfural, phenolic compounds, and ethanol. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 6:15306–15315. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b03766
Khelfa A, Finqueneisel G, Auber M, Weber JV (2008) Influence of some minerals on the cellulose thermal degradation mechanisms: thermogravimetic and pyrolysis-mass spectrometry studies. J Therm Anal Calorim 92:795–799. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-007-8649-8
Leu SY, Zhu JY (2013) Substrate-related factors affecting enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses: our recent understanding. Bioenergy Res 6:405–415. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12155-012-9276-1
Li J, Henriksson G, Gellerstedt G (2007) Lignin depolymerization/repolymerization and its critical role for delignification of aspen wood by steam explosion. Bioresour Technol 98:3061–3068. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.10.018
Li MF, Yu P, Li SX et al (2017) Sequential two-step fractionation of lignocellulose with formic acid organosolv followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide under mild conditions to prepare easily saccharified cellulose and value-added lignin. Energy Convers Manag 148:1426–1437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.07.008
Lou H, Zhu JY, Lan TQ et al (2013) PH-induced lignin surface modification to reduce nonspecific cellulase binding and enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses. Chemsuschem 6:919–927. https://doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201200859
Luterbacher JS, Rand JM, Alonso DM et al (2014) Nonenzymatic sugar production from biomass using biomass-derived γ-valerolactone. Science 80(343):277–280. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1246748
Mansfield SD, Mooney C, Saddler JN (1999) Substrate and enzyme characteristics that limit cellulose hydrolysis. Biotechnol Prog 15:804–816. https://doi.org/10.1021/bp9900864
Namazi AB, Allen DG, Jia CQ (2015) Probing microwave heating of lignocellulosic biomasses. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 112:121–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2015.02.009
Pang B, Yang S, Fang W et al (2017) Structure-property relationships for technical lignins for the production of lignin–phenol–formaldehyde resins. Ind Crops Prod 108:316–326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.07.009
Seidl PR, Goulart AK (2016) Pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic biomass conversion to biofuels and bioproducts. Curr Opin Green Sustain Chem 2:48–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogsc.2016.09.003
Solarte-Toro JC, Romero-García JM, Martínez-Patiño JC et al (2019) Acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for energy vectors production: a review focused on operational conditions and techno-economic assessment for bioethanol production. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 107:587–601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.02.024
Sun SN, Li MF, Yuan TQ et al (2013) Effect of ionic liquid/organic solvent pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corncob for bioethanol production. Part 1: structural characterization of the lignins. Ind Crops Prod 43:570–577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.07.074
Sun SL, Wen JL, Ma MG et al (2014) Structural features and antioxidant activities of degraded lignins from steam exploded bamboo stem. Ind Crops Prod 56:128–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.02.031
Thygesen A, Oddershede J, Lilholt H et al (2005) On the determination of crystallinity and cellulose content in plant fibres. Cellulose 12:563–576. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-005-9001-8
Wang G, Chen H (2016) Enhanced lignin extraction process from steam exploded corn stalk. Sep Purif Technol 157:93–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2015.11.036
Wu M, Pang J, Zhang X, Sun R (2014) Enhancement of lignin biopolymer isolation from hybrid poplar by organosolv pretreatments. Int J Polym Sci. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/194726
Wu M, Liu JK, Yan ZY et al (2016) Efficient recovery and structural characterization of lignin from cotton stalk based on a biorefinery process using a γ-valerolactone/water system. RSC Adv 6:6196–6204. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5ra23095k
Zhang C, Houtman CJ, Zhu JY (2014) Using low temperature to balance enzymatic saccharification and furan formation during SPORL pretreatment of Douglas-fir. Process Biochem 49(3):466–473
Zhang J, Gu F, Zhu JY, Zalesny RS (2015) Using a combined hydrolysis factor to optimize high titer ethanol production from sulfite-pretreated poplar without detoxification. Bioresour Technol 186:223–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.080
Zhang J, Song Y, Wang B et al (2016) Biomass to bio-ethanol: the evaluation of hybrid Pennisetum used as raw material for bio-ethanol production compared with corn stalk by steam explosion joint use of mild chemicals. Renew Energy 88:164–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.11.034
Zhang Y, Hou Q, Xu W et al (2017) Revealing the structure of bamboo lignin obtained by formic acid delignification at different pressure levels. Ind Crops Prod 108:864–871. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.08.065
Zhu JY, Pan XJ, Wang GS, Gleisner R (2009) Sulfite pretreatment (SPORL) for robust enzymatic saccharification of spruce and red pine. Bioresour Technol 100:2411–2418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.10.057
Zhu W, Houtman CJ, Zhu JY et al (2012) Quantitative predictions of bioconversion of aspen by dilute acid and SPORL pretreatments using a unified combined hydrolysis factor (CHF). Process Biochem 47:785–791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2012.02.012
Zhu J, Chen L, Gleisner R, Zhu JY (2019) Co-production of bioethanol and furfural from poplar wood via low temperature (≤ 90 °C) acid hydrotropic fractionation (AHF). Fuel 254:115572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.05.155
The authors are appreciative to the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFB1501700) and the 111 Project (B13005).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Yang, X., Song, Y., Ma, S. et al. Using γ-valerolactone and toluenesulfonic acid to extract lignin efficiently with a combined hydrolysis factor and structure characteristics analysis of lignin. Cellulose (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-020-03023-x