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Cellulose

pp 1–10 | Cite as

Direct observation of cellulase penetration in oven-dried pulp by confocal laser scanning microscopy

  • Makiko Imai
  • Atsushi Furujo
  • Junji SugiyamaEmail author
Original Research
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

Hornification of cellulose is a well-known phenomenon that takes place during the drying process. Hornification involves a structural change in the cellulose that restricts the enzyme’s ability to access and saccharify the cellulose. We observed never-dried (ND), pressed (PR), and oven-dried (OD) softwood pulp during saccharification catalyzed by fluorescent labelled cellulase from Trichoderma reesei by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Initially cellulases were observed on outer surfaces and dislocations of all the ND, PR, and OD pulp fibers. It was clearly observed that over time that cellulases penetrated the cell walls of the ND pulp fiber from the outer surface, inner surface and cracks and remained in the cell walls. In contrast, they did not penetrate the cell walls of the OD pulp fiber and instead stayed on the cracks and ends of the shortened fibers. Mannan and xylan were found at dislocations of ND and OD fibers by immunolabelling microscopy. The results suggested that hemicellulose plays an important role in hornification at dislocations.

Keywords

Pulp Oven dry Hornification Dislocation Cellulase Hemicellulose 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) project entitled Demonstration and Development Project of Production System for Cellulosic Bioethanol /Development of Technologies for Integrated Production from Woody Biomass of Cellulosic Ethanol that meets the Japanese standard for sustainability, and Feasibility Study (2015–2017), RISH Cooperative Research (ADAM), and RISH Mission Research II., RISH Cooperative Research (ADAM), and RISH Mission Research II. We thank Renee Mosi, Ph.D., from Edanz Group (www.edanzediting.com/ac) for editing a draft of this manuscript.

Funding

The study was supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) project entitled Demonstration and Development Project of Production System for Cellulosic Bioethanol /Development of Technologies for Integrated Production from Woody Biomass of Cellulosic Ethanol that meets the Japanese standard for sustainability and Feasibility Study (2015–2017), RISH Cooperative Research (ADAM), and RISH Mission Research II.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute for Sustainable HumanosphereKyoto UniversityGokasho, UjiJapan
  2. 2.Oji Holdings CorporationTokyoJapan
  3. 3.College of Materials Science and EngineeringNanjing Forestry UniversityNanjingChina

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