Advertisement

Cellulose

pp 1–14 | Cite as

Surface modification of ramie fibers with silanized CNTs through a simple spray-coating method

  • Wanru Wang
  • Guijun XianEmail author
  • Hui Li
Original Research
  • 13 Downloads

Abstract

Preliminary studies performed have indicated that carbon nanotube (CNT) coating is an effective method to enhance the bonding between a natural fiber and a resin matrix. However, the reported coating process is complex, and the improvement of the bonding strength is limited owing to obvious CNT aggregation. This paper reports a simple spray-coating method with uniform distribution of CNTs coated on ramie fiber surfaces. The dispersion of CNTs in a suspension for spray-coating was found to play a key role in CNTs distribution on the fiber surface. Silylated CNTs can be stably and uniformly suspended in a water and alcohol solution with a polyvinylpyrrolidone dispersant. The suspension was sprayed onto ramie fabric by using a hand-spraying pot, and CNTs were distributed on the fiber surface uniformly, as indicated by scanning electron microscopy results. The agglomeration of CNTs on the fiber surface became increasingly evident with an increase in the number of spray layers (from one to six). The effects of CNT coating on the flexural properties of the related composite and bonding properties were studied. The CNT-coated ramie fiber reinforced epoxy plate was prepared by a vacuum assistant resin transfer molding method. The CNT coating increased the flexural strength and modulus of the composite by 38.4% and 36.8%, respectively. A microdebonding test showed that the CNT coating increased the interfacial shear strength between a single ramie fiber and the epoxy resin by 25.7%, which is believed to result from stronger mechanical interlocking and chemical bonding.

Keywords

Ramie fiber Surface modification CNT Mechanical properties Interfacial shear strength 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by the Chinese MIIT Special Research Plan on Civil Aircraft through Grant No. MJ-2015-H-G-103 and the National Natural Science Foundation of China through Grant No. 51878223.

References

  1. Ajith A, Xian G, Li H, Sherief Z, Thomas S (2016) Surface grafting of flax fibres with hydrous zirconia nanoparticles and the effects on the tensile and bonding properties. J Compos Mater 50:627–635.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998315580450 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amiri A, Ulven CA, Huo S (2015) Effect of chemical treatment of flax fiber and resin manipulation on service life of their composites using time–temperature superposition. Polymers 7:1965–1978.  https://doi.org/10.3390/polym7101493 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnould O, Siniscalco D, Bourmaud A, Le Duigou A, Baley C (2017) Better insight into the nano-mechanical properties of flax fibre cell walls. Ind Crops Prod 97:224–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.12.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ASTM D790 (2003) Standard test methods for flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics and electrical insulating materials. American Society for Testing and Materials, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  5. Bravo-Sanchez M, Simmons TJ, Vidal MA (2010) Liquid crystal behavior of single wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon 48:3531–3542.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2010.05.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deng Y, Islam MS, Tong L (2018) Effects of grafting strength and density on interfacial shear strength of carbon nanotube grafted carbon fibre reinforced composites. Compos Sci Technol 168:195–202.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2018.09.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dittenber DB, GangaRao HVS (2012) Critical review of recent publications on use of natural composites in infrastructure. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 43:1419–1429.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2011.11.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Faruk O, Bledzki AK, Fink H-P, Sain M (2012) Biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers: 2000–2010. Prog Polym Sci 37:1552–1596.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2012.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Geng Y, Liu MY, Li J, Shi XM, Kim JK (2008) Effects of surfactant treatment on mechanical and electrical properties of CNT/epoxy nanocomposites. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 39:1876–1883.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2008.09.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. George M, Chae M, Bressler DC (2016) Composite materials with bast fibres: Structural, technical, and environmental properties. Prog Mater Sci 83:1–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2016.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gurunathan T, Mohanty S, Nayak SK (2015) A review of the recent developments in biocomposites based on natural fibres and their application perspectives. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 77:1–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. He X, Zhang F, Wang R, Liu W (2007) Preparation of a carbon nanotube/carbon fiber multi-scale reinforcement by grafting multi-walled carbon nanotubes onto the fibers. Carbon 45:2559–2563.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2007.08.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kim SW, Kim T, Kim YS, Choi HS, Lim HJ, Yang SJ, Park CR (2012) Surface modifications for the effective dispersion of carbon nanotubes in solvents and polymers. Carbon 50:3–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2011.08.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar Sinha A, Narang HK, Bhattacharya S (2017) Effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of abaca fibre. Mater Today Proc 4:8993–8996.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2017.07.251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lakshmanan A, Chakraborty S (2017) Coating of silver nanoparticles on jute fibre by in situ synthesis. Cellulose 24:1563–1577.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-017-1204-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lefatshe K, Muiva CM, Kebaabetswe LP (2017) Extraction of nanocellulose and in situ casting of ZnO/cellulose nanocomposite with enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. Carbohydr Polym 164:301–308.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.02.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li Y, Chen C, Xu J, Zhang Z, Yuan B, Huang X (2014) Improved mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes-coated flax fiber reinforced composites. J Mater Sci 50:1117–1128.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-014-8668-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li Y, Yi X, Yu T, Xian G (2018) An overview of structural-functional-integrated composites based on the hierarchical microstructures of plant fibers. Adv Compos Hybrid Mater 1:231–246.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s42114-017-0020-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li CG, Xian GJ, Li H (2019) Tension–tension fatigue performance of a large-diameter pultruded carbon/glass hybrid rod. Int J Fatigue 120:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ma PC, Kim J-K, Tang BZ (2006) Functionalization of carbon nanotubes using a silane coupling agent. Carbon 44:3232–3238.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2006.06.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ma PC, Kim J-K, Tang BZ (2007) Effects of silane functionalization on the properties of carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 67:2965–2972.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2007.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Orue A, Jauregi A, Unsuain U, Labidi J, Eceiza A, Arbelaiz A (2016) The effect of alkaline and silane treatments on mechanical properties and breakage of sisal fibers and poly(lactic acid)/sisal fiber composites. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf 84:186–195.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2016.01.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pickering KL, Efendy MGA, Le TM (2016) A review of recent developments in natural fibre composites and their mechanical performance. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 83:98–112.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.08.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Raabe J, de Souza Fonseca A, Bufalino L, Ribeiro C, Martins MA, Marconcini JM, Tonoli GH (2014) Evaluation of reaction factors for deposition of silica (SiO2) nanoparticles on cellulose fibers. Carbohydr Polym 114:424–431.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.08.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rytlewski P, Stepczyńska M, Gohs U, Malinowski R, Budner B, Żenkiewicz M (2018) Flax fibres reinforced polylactide modified by ionizing radiation. Ind Crops Prod 112:716–723.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sahoo NG, Rana S, Cho JW, Li L, Chan SH (2010) Polymer nanocomposites based on functionalized carbon nanotubes. Prog Polym Sci 35:837–867.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2010.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sandler J, Shaffer MSP, Prasse T, Bauhofer W, Schulte K, Windle AH (1999) Development of a dispersion process for carbon nanotubes in an epoxy matrix and the resulting electrical properties. Polymer 40:5967–5971.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(99)00166-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sarker F, Karim N, Afroj S, Koncherry V, Novoselov KS, Potluri P (2018) High-performance graphene-based natural fiber composites. Acs Appl Mater Interfaces 10:34502–34512.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b13018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sherief Z, Xian G, Thomas S, Ajith A (2017) Effects of surface grafting of copper nanoparticles on the tensile and bonding properties of flax fibers. Sci Eng Compos Mater 24:651–660.  https://doi.org/10.1515/secm-2014-0462 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sullins T, Pillay S, Komus A, Ning H (2017) Hemp fiber reinforced polypropylene composites: the effects of material treatments. Compos B Eng 114:15–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang B, Liu S, Zhu Y, Ge S (2014) Influence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone on the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solution. Russ J Phys Chem A 88:2385–2390.  https://doi.org/10.1134/s0036024414130020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang H, Xian G, Li H (2015) Grafting of nano-TiO2 onto flax fibers and the enhancement of the mechanical properties of the flax fiber and flax fiber/epoxy composite. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf 76:172–180.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.05.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang Z, Huang XY, Xian GJ, Li H (2016) Effects of surface treatment of carbon fiber: tensile property, surface characteristics, and bonding to epoxy. Polym Compos 37:2921–2932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang C, Wang S, Cheng H, Xian Y, Zhang S (2017) Mechanical properties and prediction for nanocalcium carbonate-treated bamboo fiber/high-density polyethylene composites. J Mater Sci 52:11482–11495.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1285-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang ZK, Zhao XL, Xian GJ, Wu G, Raman RKS, Al-Saadi S (2018) Effect of sustained load and seawater and sea sand concrete environment on durability of basalt- and glass-fibre reinforced polymer (B/GFRP) bars. Corros Sci 138:200–218.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2018.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xie Y, Hill CAS, Xiao Z, Militz H, Mai C (2010) Silane coupling agents used for natural fiber/polymer composites: a review. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 41:806–819.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2010.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yadav SP, Singh S (2016) Carbon nanotube dispersion in nematic liquid crystals: an overview. Prog Mater Sci 80:38–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2015.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yan L, Chouw N, Jayaraman K (2014) Flax fibre and its composites—a review. Compos Part B Eng 56:296–317.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.08.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yu T, Ren J, Li S, Yuan H, Li Y (2010) Effect of fiber surface-treatments on the properties of poly(lactic acid)/ramie composites. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf 41:499–505.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2009.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yu B, Jiang Z, Tang X-Z, Yue CY, Yang J (2014) Enhanced interphase between epoxy matrix and carbon fiber with carbon nanotube-modified silane coating. Compos Sci Technol 99:131–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2014.05.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhou F, Cheng G, Jiang B (2014a) Effect of silane treatment on microstructure of sisal fibers. Appl Surf Sci 292:806–812.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.12.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhou M, Li Y, He C, Jin T, Wang K, Fu Q (2014b) Interfacial crystallization enhanced interfacial interaction of poly (butylene succinate)/ramie fiber biocomposites using dopamine as a modifier. Compos Sci Technol 91:22–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2013.11.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringHarbin Institute of Technology (HIT)HarbinChina

Personalised recommendations