, Volume 26, Issue 7, pp 4279–4290 | Cite as

Enzymatic production of cello-oligomers with endoglucanases

  • Stefanie Kluge
  • Benjamin Bonhage
  • Jörn Viell
  • Mari Granström
  • Alois Kindler
  • Antje C. SpiessEmail author
Original Research


Cello-oligomers have a wide application range and are gained from three different cello-oligomer production paths, which show different drawbacks, namely acid or alkaline hydrolysis of cellulose, chemical or enzymatic synthesis, and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose using cellulase mixtures. Therefore, this study aims at a novel route towards cello-oligomers using purified endoglucanases. From the renewable raw material cellulose, pretreated by an ionic liquid, cello-oligomers with a weight average degree of polymerization (DPW) of 65 were directly obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. During hydrolysis, between 14.1 and 24.5 mass percent of monomeric and dimeric sugars were formed as byproduct. A second ionic liquid pretreatment of the cellulose, remaining after the first hydrolysis, and a second enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in cello-oligomers with a DP of 35. XRD deconvolution and Raman analysis confirmed that crystallinity remained unchanged during enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis.

Graphical Abstract


Biocatalysis Biomaterials Biopolymers Cello-oligomers Endoglucanases Ionic liquid 



Beta-glucosidases from Agrobacterium sp


Beta-glucosidases from A. niger


Endoglucanase from A. niger


Endoglucanase from B. amyloliquefaciens






Crystallinity index


Weight average degree of polymerization



[EMIM] [Ac]

1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate


Gel permeation chromatography


Ionic liquid


Multiangle laser light scattering


Refractive index


Endoglucanase from T. emersonii


Endoglucanase from T. maritima


Endoglucanase from T. longibrachiatum


X-ray diffraction



Parts of this work were performed as part of the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass”, which is funded by the Excellence Initiative by the German federal and state governments to promote science and research at German universities.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10570_2019_2390_MOESM1_ESM.docx (149 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 148 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefanie Kluge
    • 1
    • 2
  • Benjamin Bonhage
    • 1
  • Jörn Viell
    • 3
  • Mari Granström
    • 4
  • Alois Kindler
    • 4
  • Antje C. Spiess
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.AVT - Enzyme Process TechnologyRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  2. 2.DWI – Leibniz Institute for Interactive MaterialsAachenGermany
  3. 3.AVT - Process Systems Engineering, RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  4. 4.BASF SELudwigshafenGermany
  5. 5.Institute for Biochemical Engineering, TU BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany

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