, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 4143–4157 | Cite as

Multi-criteria decision analysis for textile pad-dyeing and foam-dyeing based on cost, performance, productivity and sustainability

  • Muhammad MohsinEmail author
  • Shaheen Sardar
Original Research


In the textile wet processing, pad-dyeing is a conventional and most commonly used technique for continuous processing. This technique consumes considerable amounts of water, chemical and energy. Therefore, scientists have developed the foam technique which is more sustainable than the conventional pad-dyeing. However, in order to implement the foam-dyeing in the textile industry, the key challenges include the preparation of suitable foam for range of dyes, its application, and obtaining the results that must be comparable to the conventional pad-dyeing. To address these issues, this research compares the conventional pad-dyeing and foam-dyeing concerning cost, performance, productivity, and environmental sustainability using three primary colors for direct and reactive dyes on the cotton fabrics. First part of the research includes the practical trials for the successful generation, stabilization and application of foam onto the cotton fabric for all the three primary colors of reactive and direct dyes. While in the second part, Analytic Hierarchy Process technique is used to present and analyze the problem. The results exhibited that the foam-dyeing is superior than pad-dyeing in terms of cost, productivity, and sustainability. The performance can be further improved by optimizing the foam-dyeing recipes. Multi-criteria decision analysis provides an organized and comprehensive way to evaluate the alternative recipes for dyeing.


Padding Foam coating Reactive dyes Direct dyes Analytic hierarchy process Environmental savings 



  1. Aluftekin N, Tas A, Yuksel O, Cakar GE, Bayraktar F (2011) Assessment of cluster potential and decision making criterion in the textile and apparel sector using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Afr J Bus Manag 5(22):9125–9136Google Scholar
  2. Arık B, Avinc O, Yavas A (2018) Crease resistance improvement of hemp biofiber fabric via sol–gel and crosslinking methods. Cellulose 25:4841–4858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bahurmoz AM (2006) The analytic hierarchy process: a methodology for win-win management. JKAU Econ Adm 20(1):3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhavsar PS, Zoccola M, Patrucco A, Montarsolo A, Mossotti R, Giansetti M, Rovero G, Tonin C (2017) Superheated water hydrolyzed keratin: a new application as a foaming agent in foam dyeing of cotton and wool fabrics. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 5(10):9150–9159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen S, Wang C, Fei L, Liu H (2017) A novel strategy for realising environmentally friendly pigment foam dyeing using polyoxyethylene ether surfactant C14EO5 as a foam controller. Color Technol 133(3):253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dawson TL (1981) Foam dyeing and printing of carpets. Color Technol 97(6):262–274Google Scholar
  7. Elbadawi AM, Pearson JS (2003) Foam technology in textile finishing. Text Prog 33(4):1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gregorian RS, Namboodri CG, Young RE, Baitinger WF (1983) Foam application of phosphonium salt flame retardants. Text Res J 53(3):148–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hasanbeigi A, Price L (2015) A technical review of emerging technologies for energy and water efficiency and pollution reduction in the textile industry. J Clean Prod 95:30–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hou Q, Wang X (2017) The effect of PVA foaming characteristics on foam forming. Cellulose 24:4939–4948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ibrahim MT, Rifai D, Hasif NM, Khamsah N, Ghoni R, Ali K (2016) Development of electric source machine for public used. Indian J Sci Technol 9(9):1–16Google Scholar
  12. Kaya E, Caliskan FD, Gozlu S (2007) Manufacturing performance criteria: an AHP application in a textile company. In: Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology. IEEE, pp 1186–1194Google Scholar
  13. Kumar PS, Yaashikaa PR (2018) Sustainable dyeing techniques. In: Sustainable innovations in textile chemical processes. Springer, Singapore, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  14. Li K, Zhang JF, Li QJ (2011) Study on foaming properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate for textile foam dyeing and finishing. In: Advanced materials research, vol 332. Trans Tech Publications, pp 1515–1519Google Scholar
  15. Mu E, Pereyra-Rojas M (2016) Practical decision making: an introduction to the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) using super decisions, vol 2. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  16. Namboodri CG, Duke MW (1979) Foam finishing of cotton-containing textiles. Text Res J 49(3):156–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ozturk E, Koseoglu H, Karaboyacı M, Yigit NO, Yetis U, Kitis M (2016) Minimization of water and chemical use in a cotton/polyester fabric dyeing textile mill. J Clean Prod 130:92–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Saaty TL (1990) How to make a decision: the analytic hierarchy process. Eur J Oper Res 48(1):9–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sambasivan M, Fei NY (2008) Evaluation of critical success factors of implementation of ISO 14001 using analytic hierarchy process (AHP): a case study from Malaysia. J Clean Prod 16(13):1424–1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sarwar N, Mohsin M, Bhatti AA, Ahmmad SW, Husaain A (2017) Development of water and energy efficient environment friendly easy care finishing by foam coating on stretch denim fabric. J Clean Prod 154:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shang S, Hu E, Poon P, Jiang S, Kan CW, Koo R (2011) Foam dyeing for developing the wash-out effect on cotton knitted fabrics with pigment. Res J Text Appar 15(1):44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shi H, Peng SZ, Liu Y, Zhong P (2008) Barriers to the implementation of cleaner production in Chinese SMEs: government, industry and expert stakeholders’ perspectives. J Clean Prod 16(7):842–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Song MS, Hou JB, Lu YH, Lin J, Cheng DH (2013) Performance of foam and application in foam finishing of textile. In: Advanced materials research, vol 821. Trans Tech Publications, pp 661–664Google Scholar
  24. Vaidya OS, Kumar S (2006) Analytic hierarchy process: an overview of applications. Eur J Oper Res 169(1):1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Van der Walt GHJ, Van Rensburg NJJ (1986) Low-liquor dyeing and finishing. Text Prog 14(2):1–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yang CQ, Perenich TA, Fateley WG (1989) Studies of foam finished cotton fabrics using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy. Text Res J 59(10):562–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yu H, Wang Y, Zhong Y, Mao Z, Tan S (2014) Foam properties and application in dyeing cotton fabrics with reactive dyes. Color Technol 130(4):266–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang X, Fang K, Zhang J, Shu D, Gong J, Liu X (2017) A vacuum-dehydration aided pad-steam process for improving reactive dyeing of cotton fabric. J Clean Prod 168:1193–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Textile Engineering DepartmentUniversity of Engineering and Technology, LahoreFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations