, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 3643–3654 | Cite as

Surface modification of banana fibers using organosilanes: an IGC insight

  • Emanuel Alonso
  • Laly A. Pothan
  • Artur Ferreira
  • Nereida CordeiroEmail author
Original Research


Banana fibers are an agricultural waste material with a great exploitation potential due to their cellulose-rich content. Raw banana fibers (RBF) were treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane to improve the inherent limitations of banana fibers, namely its poor cell adhesion. The fibers’ modification was evaluated by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Similar γ s d values were observed between the RBF and silane-treated fibers (39–41 mJ/m2), which indicates similar reactivity towards apolar probes. However, the decrease in the entropic parameter indicates the silane covalent bonding with the cellulose chains making a stiffer structure. Organosilane grafting was confirmed by an increased basic character in the silane-treated fibers (Kb/Ka from 1.03 to 2.81). The surface morphology also changed towards higher contact area (SBET increases 6.7 times) and porosity (Dp increases up to 67%). Both morphological and functional group reactivity changes suggest that the organosilane treatment offers new opportunities for these fibers to be used as adsorbents for proteins as well as to cell adhesion. Therefore, IGC proved a simple and viable technique in the characterization of silane-treated fibers.

Graphical abstract


Banana fibers Organosilane coupling agent Inverse gas chromatography 3-Aminopropyltriethoxy silane Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane 



The authors would like to thank the National program for Scientific Equipment Renewal, POCI 2010, for sponsoring IGC work (FEDER and Foundation for Science and Technology). The Indian authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi for the financial support of the project.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LB3, Faculty of Science and EngineeringUniversity of MadeiraFunchalPortugal
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryBishop Moore CollegeMavelikaraIndia
  3. 3.CICECO – Aveiro Institute of Materials and Águeda School of Technology and ManagementUniversity of AveiroÁguedaPortugal
  4. 4.CIIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental ResearchUniversity of PortoMatosinhosPortugal

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