Advertisement

Cellulose

pp 1–18 | Cite as

Flame resistance behavior of cotton fabrics coated with bilayer assemblies of ammonium polyphosphate and casein

  • Sajid Faheem
  • Vijay BahetiEmail author
  • Maros Tunak
  • Jakub Wiener
  • Jiri Militky
Original Research
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

This research report discusses the intumescent flame resistance and physiological comfort of cotton fabrics after being coated with bilayer assemblies of different concentrations of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and casein solutions. The flame resistance was investigated using horizontal flame propagation, cone calorimetry and thermo-gravimetric analysis, whereas physiological comfort was estimated in terms of air permeability, water vapor permeability and stiffness testing. From cone calorimetry results, the coated fabrics showed very slow combustion kinetics as the concentration of casein or APP was increased. Although, higher concentration of casein was found to produce higher char residue, but the physiological comfort properties were deteriorated beyond 5 wt% casein. The images of burnt samples confirmed the formation of a distinct intumescence layer of char residue and it was also validated from the measurements of thermal conductivity of char residues. In this way, the presented work showed that the casein could perform number of functions such as catalyzed dehydration, accelerated charring and intumescent char formation in APP based intumescent systems.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Green flame retardants Casein Cotton Thermo-oxidative stability Physiological comfort Image analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic and the European Union - European Structural and Investment Funds in the frames of Operational Programme Research, Development and Education - project Hybrid Materials for Hierarchical Structures (HyHi, Reg. No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000843) and project Modular platform for autonomous chassis of specialized electric vehicles for freight and equipment transportation (Reg. No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_025/0007293). The authors acknowledge the research project of Student grant competition of Technical University of Liberec No. 21241 granted by Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of Czech Republic.

References

  1. Alongi J, Ciobanu M, Malucelli G (2011) Novel flame retardant finishing systems for cotton fabrics based on phosphorus-containing compounds and silica derived from sol-gel processes. Carbohydr Polym 85:599–608.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.03.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alongi J, Carletto RA, Bosco F et al (2014) Caseins and hydrophobins as novel green flame retardants for cotton fabrics. Polym Degrad Stab 99:111–117.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2013.11.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Apaydin K, Laachachi A, Ball V et al (2014) Intumescent coating of (polyallylamine-polyphosphates) deposited on polyamide fabrics via layer-by-layer technique. Polym Degrad Stab 106:158–164.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2014.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bogusławska-Baczek M, Hes L (2013) Effective water vapour permeability of wet wool fabric and blended fabrics. Fibres Text East Eur 97:67–71Google Scholar
  5. Chou CS, Lin SH, Wang CI (2009) Preparation and characterization of the intumescent fire retardant coating with a new flame retardant. Adv Powder Technol 20:169–176.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2008.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ding X, Fang F, Du T et al (2016) Carbon nanotube-filled intumescent multilayer nanocoating on cotton fabric for enhancing flame retardant property. Surf Coat Technol 305:184–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.08.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Diswat J, Hes L, Bal K (2016) Thermal resistance of cut pile hand tufted carpet and its prediction. Text Res J 86:1759–1767.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0040517515612356 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Drevelle C, Lefebvre J, Duquesne S et al (2005) Thermal and fire behaviour of ammonium polyphosphate/acrylic coated cotton/PESFR fabric. Polym Degrad Stab 88:130–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2004.02.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Faheem S, Baheti V, Tunak M et al (2017) Comparative performance of flame retardancy, physiological comfort, and durability of cotton textiles treated with alkaline and acidic casein suspension. J Ind Text.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1528083717750885 Google Scholar
  10. Fang F, Zhang X, Meng Y et al (2015) Intumescent flame retardant coatings on cotton fabric of chitosan and ammonium polyphosphate via layer-by-layer assembly. Surf Coat Technol 262:9–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.11.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fanglong Z, Qun X, Qianqian F et al (2016) Influence of nano-silica on flame resistance behavior of intumescent flame retardant cellulosic textiles: remarkable synergistic effect? Surf Coat Technol 294:90–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.03.059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feng Y, Zhou Y, Li D et al (2017) A plant-based reactive ammonium phytate for use as a flame-retardant for cotton fabric. Carbohydr Polym 175:636–644.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.06.129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gu J, Zhang G, Dong S et al (2007) Study on preparation and fire-retardant mechanism analysis of intumescent flame-retardant coatings. Surf Coat Technol 201:7835–7841.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2007.03.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jiang W, Jin FL, Park SJ (2015) Synthesis of a novel phosphorus–nitrogen-containing intumescent flame retardant and its application to fabrics. J Ind Eng Chem 27:40–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2015.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jimenez M, Duquesne S, Bourbigot S (2006) Intumescent fire protective coating: toward a better understanding of their mechanism of action. Thermochim Acta 449:16–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2006.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jindasuwan S, Sukmanee N, Supanpong C et al (2013) Influence of hydrophobic substance on enhancing washing durability of water soluble flame-retardant coating. Appl Surf Sci 275:239–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.12.139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu Y, Pan YT, Wang X et al (2016) Effect of phosphorus-containing inorganic–organic hybrid coating on the flammability of cotton fabrics: synthesis, characterization and flammability. Chem Eng J 294:167–175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.02.080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Malucelli G, Bosco F, Alongi J et al (2014) Biomacromolecules as novel green flame retardant systems for textiles: an overview. RSC Adv 4:46024–46039.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ra06771a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pan H, Wang W, Pan Y et al (2015) Formation of self-extinguishing flame retardant biobased coating on cotton fabrics via Layer-by-Layer assembly of chitin derivatives. Carbohydr Polym 115:516–524.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.08.084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Perera S, Bhushan B, Bandara R et al (2013) Morphological, antimicrobial, durability, and physical properties of untreated and treated textiles using silver-nanoparticles. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 436:975–989.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2013.08.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Price D, Horrocks AR, Akalin M, Faroq AA (1997) Influence of flame retardants on the mechanism of pyrolysis of cotton (cellulose) fabrics in air. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 40–41:511–524.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-2370(97)00043-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Šimkovic I (2012) TG/DTG/DTA evaluation of flame retarded cotton fabrics and comparison to cone calorimeter data. Carbohydr Polym 90:976–981.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.06.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xie K, Gao A, Zhang Y (2013) Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen. Carbohydr Polym 98:706–710.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.06.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xue CH, Zhang L, Wei P, Jia ST (2016) Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton textiles with flame retardancy. Cellulose 23:1471–1480.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-016-0885-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yew MC, Ramli Sulong NH, Yew MK et al (2015) Eggshells: a novel bio-filler for intumescent flame-retardant coatings. Prog Org Coat 81:116–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2015.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhang D, Williams BL, Shrestha SB et al (2017) Flame retardant and hydrophobic coatings on cotton fabrics via sol-gel and self-assembly techniques. J Colloid Interface Sci 505:892–899.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2017.06.087 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhao L, Yan H, Fang Z et al (2015) On the flameproof treatment of ramie fabrics using a spray-assisted layer-by-layer technique. Polym Degrad Stab 121:11–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2015.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajid Faheem
    • 1
  • Vijay Baheti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maros Tunak
    • 2
  • Jakub Wiener
    • 1
  • Jiri Militky
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Material Engineering, Faculty of Textile EngineeringTechnical University of LiberecLiberecCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Textile Evaluation, Faculty of Textile EngineeringTechnical University of LiberecLiberecCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations