, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 2805–2819 | Cite as

Synergistic effect of hetero- and homo-catalysts on the ‘green’ synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from chitosan biomass

  • Nikhil D. Kalane
  • R. Akhil Krishnan
  • Vijay D. Yadav
  • Ratnesh JainEmail author
  • Prajakta DandekarEmail author
Original Research


5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is an important platform chemical and a sustainable choice in the field of biofuels and bioplastics. The past decade has witnessed significant advancements in the production of 5-HMF using edible feedstocks, like glucose and fructose, with good success. In this investigation, we discuss ‘green’ synthesis of 5-HMF from chitosan using a combination of homogenous and heterogeneous catalyses. Catalysts were screened and the effect of various parameters such as concentrations of chitosan and the catalysts, concentration of acetic acid, reaction temperature and reaction time were studied to identify the process conditions giving maximum yield of 5-HMF. It was found that H-β-zeolite in combination with a minimal concentration of acetic acid resulted in maximum yield, which ranges from 15.27 to 28.22% of 5-HMF, depending on the molecular weight of the parent polymer. Our investigation involves usage of solid acid catalysts, environmentally benign solvents and crustacean waste as the starting material making the process ‘green’ and sustainable.

Graphical abstract


5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) Chitosan H-β-zeolite Acetic acid Solid acid catalysts Biofuels 



The authors are thankful to Ramanujan fellowship research Grant (SR/S2/RJN-139/2011), Ramalingaswami fellowship research Grant (BT/RLF/Re-entry/51/2011), Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme of Government of India (TEQIP) and UGC-BSR fellowship (F.25-1/2014-15 (BSR)/No. F.8-10/2007(BSR)) and (F.4-1/2006 (BSR)/8-10/2007(BSR)) for financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10570_2019_2256_MOESM1_ESM.docx (709 kb)
Product characterization data including FTIR, LC–MS, 1H NMR and preparative LC. BET surface area and acidity of the solid acid catalysts. HPLC chromatograms of the reaction mixture and the isolated product (DOCX 709 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and TechnologyInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia

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