Advertisement

Cellulose

, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 7003–7015 | Cite as

Effect of delignification technique on the ease of fibrillation of cellulose II nanofibers from wood

  • Haiying Wang
  • Chuchu Chen
  • Lu Fang
  • Suiyi Li
  • Nuo Chen
  • Junwu Pang
  • Dagang Li
Original Paper
  • 57 Downloads

Abstract

We report on an efficient method for extracting cellulose nanofibers with cellulose II crystal structure that presents a relatively high yield (approximately 82%) after mechanical treatment. Delignification technique plays an important role in the conversion of crystals from cellulose I to cellulose II during the mercerization process and in the subsequent fibrillation of cellulose II nanofibers. Delignified wood pulps (with half of the lignin removed) were treated with 17.5 wt% sodium hydroxide solution to mercerize the cellulose, and then the remaining lignin was further removed to purify the pulps. The resulting pulps were fibrillated by using only one pass through a grinder. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the above mercerized pulps were successfully converted into the cellulose II crystal structure. Morphological observation showed that cellulose II nanofibers with a width of approximately 15–90 nm were successfully obtained using the above method. This may have occurred because the remaining half of the lignin in wood pulps partly prevented the interdigitation and aggregation of the cellulose microfibrils during the mercerization process, thus facilitating the subsequent nanofibrillation. However, for the delignified wood pulps (with more than two-thirds of the lignin removed), the microfibrils in the cell wall bound more easily to each other by aggregation during the mercerization process, which may have caused difficulties in the subsequent nanofibrillation.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Cellulose II Nanofibers Delignification Crystal conversion Morphology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (CN) (Grants Nos. BK20150875, BK20170925, BK20150881), Innovation Fund for Young Scholars of Nanjing Forestry University (No. CX2017003), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC 31670555), and the Starting Foundation of Nanjing forestry University (No. GXL001).

References

  1. Abdel-Halim ES (2014) Chemical modification of cellulose extracted from sugarcane bagasse: preparation of hydroxyethyl cellulose. Arab J Chem 7:362–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abe K, Yano H (2011) Formation of hydrogels from cellulose nanofibers. Carbohydr Polym 85:733–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abe K, Iwamoto S, Yano H (2007) Obtaining cellulose nanofibers with a uniform width of 15 nm from wood. Biomacromolecules 8:3276–3278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen W, Yu H, Liu Y, Jiang N, Chen P (2010) A method for isolating cellulose nanofibrils from wood and their morphological characteristics. Acta Polym Sin 11:1320–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen W, Yu H, Liu Y, Chen P, Zhang M, Hai Y (2011a) Individualization of cellulose nanofibers from wood using high-intensity ultrasonication combined with chemical pretreatments. Carbohydr Polym 83:1804–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen W, Yu H, Liu Y, Hai Y, Zhang M, Chen P (2011b) Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from four plant cellulose fibers using a chemical-ultrasonic process. Cellulose 18:433–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. de Morais Teixeira E, Corrêa AC, Manzoli A, de Lima Leite F, de Oliveira CR, Mattoso LHC (2010) Cellulose nanofibers from white and naturally colored cotton fibers. Cellulose 17:595–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dinand E, Vignon M, Chanzy H, Heux L (2002) Mercerization of primary wall cellulose and its implication for the conversion of cellulose I -> cellulose II. Cellulose 9:7–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Douglass EF, Avci H, Boy R, Rojas OJ, Kotek R (2018) A review of cellulose and cellulose blends for preparation of bio-derived and conventional membranes, nanostructured thin films, and composites. Polym Rev 58:102–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fengel D, Jakob H, Strobel C (1995) Influence of the alkali concentration on the formation of cellulose II. Study by X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Holzforschung 49:505–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fink HP, Phillip B (1985) Models of cellulose physical structure from the view point of the cellulose I to cellulose II transition. J Appl Polym Sci 30:3779–3790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. French AD (2014) Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs. Cellulose 21:885–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Horikawa Y, Konakahara N, Imai T, Kentaro A, Kobayashi Y, Sugiyama J (2013) The structural changes in crystalline cellulose and effects on enzymatic digestibility. Polym Degrad Stabil 98:2351–2356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hubbell CA, Ragauskas AJ (2010) Effect of acid–chlorite delignification on cellulose degree of polymerization. Bioresourc Technol 101:7410–7415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ishikura Y, Abe K, Yano H (2010) Bending properties and cell wall structure of alkali-treated wood. Cellulose 17:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Iwamoto S, Abe K, Yano H (2008) The effect of hemicelluloses on wood pulp nanofibrillation and nanofiber network characteristics. Biomacromolecules 9:1022–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jin E, Guo JQ, Yang F, Zhu YY, Song JL, Jin YC, Rojas OJ (2016) On the polymorphic and morphological changes of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-I) upon mercerization and conversion to CNC-II. Carbohydr Polym 143:327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kargarzadeh H, Mariano M, Huang J, Lin N, Ahmad I, Dufresne A, Thomas S (2017) Recent developments on nanocellulose reinforced polymer nanocomposites: a review. Polymer 132:368–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li R, Fei J, Cai Y, Li Y, Feng J, Yao J (2009) Cellulose whiskers extracted from mulberry: a novel biomass production. Carbohydr Polym 76:94–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li Y, Liu Y, Chen W, Wang Q, Liu Y, Li J, Yu H (2016) Facile extraction of cellulose nanocrystals from wood using ethanol and peroxide solvothermal pretreatment followed by ultrasonic nanofibrillation. Green Chem 18:1010–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu Y, Hu H (2008) X-ray diffraction study of bamboo fibers treated with NaOH. Fiber Polym 9(6):735–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu Y, Chen W, Xia Q, Guo B, Wang Q, Liu S, Liu Y, Li J, Yu H (2017) Efficient cleavage of lignin–carbohydrate complexes and ultrafast extraction of lignin oligomers from wood biomass by microwave-assisted treatment with deep eutectic solvent. ChemSusChem 10:1692–1700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moon RJ, Martini A, Nairn J, Simonsen J, Youngblood J (2011) Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and nanocomposites. Chem Soc Rev 40:3941–3994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Muhd Julkapli N, Bagheri S (2017) Nanocellulose as a green and sustainable emerging material in energy applications: a review. Polym Adv Technol 28:1583–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nagarajan S, Skillen NC, Irvine JTS, Lawton LA, Robertson PKJ (2017) Cellulose II as bioethanol feedstock and its advantages over native cellulose. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 77:182–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nishino T, Takano K, Nakamae K (1995) Elastic modulus of the crystalline regions of cellulose triesters. J Polym Sci Part A Polym Chem 33:1647–1651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Okano T, Sarko A (1985) Mercerization of cellulose. II. Alkali–cellulose intermediates and a possible mercerization mechanism. J Appl Polym Sci 30:325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rabetafika HN, Bchir B, Blecker C, Paquot M, Wathelet B (2014) Comparative study of alkaline extraction process of hemicelluloses from pear pomace. Biomass Bioenergy 61:254–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Revol JF, Goring DAI (1981) On the mechanism of the mercerization of cellulose in wood. J Appl Polym Sci 26:1275–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Roy D, Semsarilar M, Guthrie JT, Perrier S (2009) Cellulose modification by polymer grafting: a review. Chem Soc Rev 38:2046–2064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sain M, Panthapulakkal S (2006) Bioprocess preparation of wheat straw fibers and their characterization. Ind Crops Prod 23(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schopfer P (2006) Biomechanics of plant growth. Am J Bot 93:1415–1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Serizawa T, Kato M, Okura H, Sawada T, Wada M (2016) Hydrolytic activities of artificial nanocellulose synthesized via phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic reactions. Polym J 48:539–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sharma S, Nair SS, Zhang Z, Ragauskas AJ, Deng YL (2015) Characterization of micro fibrillation process of cellulose and mercerized cellulose pulp. RSC Adv 5:63111–63122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shiraishi N, Moriwaki M, Lonikar SV, Yokota T (1984) Lattice conversion of cellulose in wood. J Wood Chem Technol 4:219–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Siro I, Plackett D (2010) Microfibrillated cellulose and new nanocomposite materials: a review. Cellulose 17:459–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sun R, Tomkinson J, Wang Y, Xiao B (2000) Physico-chemical and structural characterization of hemicelluloses from wheat straw by alkaline peroxideextraction. Polymer 41(7):2647–2656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Suzuki K, Homma Y, Igarashi Y, Okumura H, Semba T, Nakatsubo F, Yano H (2016) Investigation of the mechanism and effectiveness of cationic polymer as a compatibilizer in microfibrillated cellulose-reinforced polyolefins. Cellulose 23:623–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang H, Li D, Yano H, Abe K (2014) Preparation of tough cellulose II nanofibers with high thermal stability from wood. Cellulose 21:1505–1515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Xia Q, Liu Y, Meng J, Cheng W, Chen W, Liu S, Liu Y, Li J, Yu H (2018) Multiple hydrogen bond coordination in three-constituent deep eutectic solvents enhances lignin fractionation from biomass. Green Chem 20:2711–2721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xing L, Gu J, Zhang W, Tu D, Hu C (2018) Cellulose I and II nanocrystals produced by sulfuric acid hydrolysis of Tetra pak cellulose I. Carbohydr Polym 192:184–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yue Y, Zhou C, French AD, Xia G, Han G, Wang Q, Wu Q (2012) Comparative properties of cellulose nano-crystals from native and mercerized cotton fibers. Cellulose 19:1173–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yue Y, Han J, Han G, Aita GM, Wu Q (2015) Cellulose fibers isolated from energycane bagasse using alkaline and sodium chlorite treatments: structural, chemical and thermal properties. Ind Crops Prod 76:355–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Materials Science and EngineeringNanjing Forestry UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.College of Furniture and Industrial DesignNanjing Forestry UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations