, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 6031–6039 | Cite as

Enabling direct laser writing of cellulose-based submicron architectures

  • Maximilian Rothammer
  • Marie-Christin Heep
  • Georg von Freymann
  • Cordt Zollfrank
Original Paper


We report on the first and versatile cellulose-based photoresist, which can be applied in direct laser writing and allows the fabrication of structures with a resolution of less than 1 μm and a feature size of less than 500 nm via two-photon absorption. Therefore, cellulose diacetate is functionalised with methacrylic acid anhydride to introduce photo-crosslinkable side groups into the cellulose chain. The photoresist consists of the methacrylated cellulose diacetate and a photoinitiator both dissolved in acetone. The cellulose-based photoresist can be applied to generate two- and three-dimensional hierarchical structures and clears the way to the design and fabrication of biomimetic architectures solely made from biopolymers.

Graphical abstract

A photo-crosslinkable cellulose-based resist, which can be applied in direct laser writing (DLW), was synthesised. It enables the generation of two- and three-dimensional hierarchical structures with a feature size of less than 500 nm via two-photon absorption. This new photoresist paves the way towards designing and fabricating biomimetic architectures solely made from biopolymers.


Cellulose methacrylate Bio-based photoresist Direct laser writing Submicron patterning 



The financial support from German Science Foundation (DFG) for funding our work within the priority program “Tailored Disorder—A science-and engineering-based approach to materials design for advanced photonic applications” (SPP-1839) is gratefully acknowledged. We thank the team from the Nano Structuring Centre (NSC) at University of Kaiserslautern for their support with scanning electron microscopy and Dr. Christina Rösch from the group of Prof. Christiane Ziegler at University of Kaiserslautern for the roughness measurements.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chair of Biogenic PolymersTechnical University of MunichStraubingGermany
  2. 2.Physics Department and Research Centre OPTIMASUniversity of KaiserslauternKaiserslauternGermany
  3. 3.Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics ITWMKaiserslauternGermany

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