Advertisement

Cellulose

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 6055–6069 | Cite as

Continuous roll-to-roll coating of cellulose nanocrystals onto paperboard

  • Rajesh KoppoluEmail author
  • Tiffany Abitbol
  • Vinay Kumar
  • Aayush Kumar Jaiswal
  • Agne Swerin
  • Martti Toivakka
Original Paper

Abstract

There is an increased interest in the use of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films and coatings for a range of functional applications in the fields of material science, biomedical engineering, and pharmaceutical sciences. Most of these applications have been demonstrated on films and coatings produced using laboratory-scale batch processes, such as solvent casting, dip coating, or spin coating. For successful coating application of CNC suspensions using a high throughput process, several challenges need to be addressed: relatively high viscosity at low solids content, coating brittleness, and potentially poor adhesion to the substrate. This work aims to address these problems. The impact of plasticizer on suspension rheology, coating adhesion, and barrier properties was quantified, and the effect of different pre-coatings on the wettability and adhesion of CNC coatings to paperboard substrates was explored. CNC suspensions were coated onto pre-coated paperboard in a roll-to-roll process using a custom-built slot die. The addition of sorbitol reduced the brittleness of the CNC coatings, and a thin cationic starch pre-coating improved their adhesion to the paperboard. The final coat weight, dry coating thickness, and coating line speed were varied between 1–11 g/m2, 900 nm–7 µm, and 2.5–10 m/min, respectively. The barrier properties, adhesive strength, coating coverage, and smoothness of the CNC coatings were characterized. SEM images show full coating coverage at coat weights as low as 1.5 g/m2. With sorbitol as plasticizer and at coat weights above 3.5 g/m2, heptane vapor and water vapor transmission rates were reduced by as much as 99% and 75% respectively. Compared to other film casting techniques, the process employed in this work deposits a relatively thick coating in significantly less time, and may therefore pave the way toward various functional applications based on CNCs.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) Slot coating Roll-to-roll coating Sorbitol plasticizer Barrier properties Barrier films 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Stora Enso, Omya International, CP Kelco and; Chemigate for kindly providing us with pigment-coated paperboard, CaCO3 pigment, CMC and cationic starch respectively. The project was partly funded by VINNOVA testbed project called TinyBTalented. TA acknowledges Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions as research fellow and AS the Nils and Dorthi Troëdsson Foundation for Scientific Research.

Supplementary material

10570_2018_1958_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1465 kb)

References

  1. Abdollahi M, Alboofetileh M, Behrooz R, Rezaei M, Miraki R (2013) Reducing water sensitivity of alginate bio-nanocomposite film using cellulose nanoparticles. Int J Biol Macromol 54:166–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.12.016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abitbol T, Rivkin A, Cao Y, Nevo Y, Abraham E, Ben-Shalom T, Lapidot S, Shoseyov O (2016) Nanocellulose, a tiny fiber with huge applications. Curr Opin Biotechnol 39:76–88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2016.01.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambrosio-Martín J, Fabra MJ, Lopez-Rubio A, Lagaron JM (2015) Melt polycondensation to improve the dispersion of bacterial cellulose into polylactide via melt compounding: enhanced barrier and mechanical properties. Cellulose 22:1201–1226.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0523-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bayati F, Boluk Y, Choi P (2014) Diffusion behavior of water at infinite dilution in hydroxypropyl xylan films with sorbitol and cellulose nanocrystals. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2:1305–1311.  https://doi.org/10.1021/sc500133p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brodin FW, Gregersen OW, Syverud K (2014) Cellulose nanofibrils: challenges and possibilities as a paper additive or coating material–a review. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 29:156–166.  https://doi.org/10.3183/NPPRJ-2014-29-01-p156-166 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlsson DO, Hua K, Forsgren J, Mihranyan A (2013) Aspirin degradation in surface-charged TEMPO-oxidized mesoporous crystalline nanocellulose. Int J Pharm 461:74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chowdhury RA, Clarkson C, Youngblood J (2018) Continuous roll-to-roll fabrication of transparent cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) coatings with controlled anisotropy. Cellulose 25:1769–1781.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-018-1688-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ding X, Liu J, Harris TAL (2016) A review of the operating limits in slot die coating processes. AIChE J 62:2508–2524.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.15268 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dufresne A (2013) Nanocellulose: a new ageless bionanomaterial. Mater Today 16:220–227.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mattod.2013.06.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eichhorn SJ, Dufresne A, Aranguren MM, Capadona JR, Rowan SJ, Weder C, Thielemans W, Roman M, Renneckar S, Gindl W (2010) Review: current international research into cellulose nanofibres and composites. J Mater Sci 45:1–33.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-009-3874-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elazzouzi-Hafraoui S, Nishiyama Y, Putaux J, Heux L, Dubreuil F, Rochas C (2007) The shape and size distribution of crystalline nanoparticles prepared by acid hydrolysis of native cellulose. Biomacromol 9:57–65.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm700769p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feng X, Meng X, Zhao J, Miao M, Shi L, Zhang S, Fang J (2015) Extraction and preparation of cellulose nanocrystals from dealginate kelp residue: structures and morphological characterization. Cellulose 22:1763–1772.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0617-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fortunati E, Peltzer M, Armentano I, Torre L, Jiménez A, Kenny JM (2012) Effects of modified cellulose nanocrystals on the barrier and migration properties of PLA nano-biocomposites. Carbohydr Polym 90:948–956.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.06.025 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fortunati E, Luzi F, Puglia D, Dominici F, Santulli C, Kenny JM, Torre L (2014) Investigation of thermo-mechanical, chemical and degradative properties of PLA-limonene films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals extracted from Phormium tenax leaves. Eur Polym J 56:77–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2014.03.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gicquel E, Martin C, Garrido Yanez J, Bras J (2017) Cellulose nanocrystals as new bio-based coating layer for improving fiber-based mechanical and barrier properties. J Mater Sci 52:3048–3061.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-016-0589-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Habibi Y, Lucia LA, Rojas OJ (2010) Cellulose nanocrystals: chemistry, self-assembly, and applications. Chem Rev 110:3479CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hamad WY (2017) Cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils in advanced applications. In: Kargarzadeh H, Ahmad I, Thomas S, Dufresne A (eds) Handbook of nanocellulose and cellulose nanocomposites. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 799–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Herrera MA, Mathew AP, Oksman K (2017) Barrier and mechanical properties of plasticized and cross-linked nanocellulose coatings for paper packaging applications. Cellulose 24:3969–3980.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-017-1405-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hubbe MA, Ferrer A, Tyagi P, Yin Y, Salas C, Pal L, Rojas OJ (2017) Nanocellulose in thin films, coatings, and plies for packaging applications: a review. BioResources 12:2143–2233.  https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.12.1.2143-2233 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Isogai A (2013) Wood nanocelluloses: fundamentals and applications as new bio-based nanomaterials. J Wood Sci 59:449–459.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10086-013-1365-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jackson JK, Letchford K, Wasserman BZ, Ye L, Hamad WY, Burt HM (2011) The use of nanocrystalline cellulose for the binding and controlled release of drugs. Int J Nanomed 6:321–330.  https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S16749 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kinnunen-Raudaskoski K, Hjelt T, Kenttä E, Forsström U (2014) Thin coatings for paper by foam coating. Tappi J 13:9–19Google Scholar
  23. Klemm D, Kramer F, Moritz S, Lindström T, Ankerfors M, Gray D, Dorris A (2011) Nanocelluloses: a new family of nature-based materials. Angew Chem Int Ed 50:5438–5466.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201001273 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar V (2018) Roll-to-roll processing of nanocellulose into coatings, Åbo Akademi UniversityGoogle Scholar
  25. Kumar V, Elfving A, Koivula H, Bousfield D, Toivakka M (2016a) Roll-to-roll processed cellulose nanofiber coatings. Ind Eng Chem Res 55:3603–3613.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.6b00417 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kumar V, Nazari B, Bousfield D, Toivakka M (2016b) Rheology of microfibrillated cellulose suspensions in pressure-driven flow. Appl Rheol 26:43534.  https://doi.org/10.3933/APPLRHEOL-26-43534 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kumar V, Koppolu VR, Bousfield D, Toivakka M (2017a) Substrate role in coating of microfibrillated cellulose suspensions. Cellulose 24:1247–1260.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-017-1201-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kumar V, Ottesen V, Syverud K, Gregersen ØW, Toivakka M (2017b) Coatability of cellulose nanofibril suspensions: role of rheology and water retention. BioResources 12:7656–7679.  https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.12.4.7656-7679 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lavoine N, Desloges I, Dufresne A, Bras J (2012) Microfibrillated cellulose–its barrier properties and applications in cellulosic materials: a review. Carbohydr Polym 90:735–764.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.05.026 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Li F, Biagioni P, Bollani M, Maccagnan A, Piergiovanni L (2013) Multi-functional coating of cellulose nanocrystals for flexible packaging applications. Cellulose 20:2491–2504.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-013-0015-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lindström T, Naderi A, Wiberg A (2015) Large Scale applications of nanocellulosic materials. Palpu Chongi Gisul J Korea Tech Assoc Pulp Pap Ind 47:5–21.  https://doi.org/10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mariano M, El Kissi N, Dufresne A (2014) Cellulose nanocrystals and related nanocomposites: review of some properties and challenges. J Polym Sci, Part B: Polym Phys 52:791–806.  https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.23490 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meng Q, Manas-Zloczower I (2015) Carbon nanotubes enhanced cellulose nanocrystals films with tailorable electrical conductivity. Compos Sci Technol 120:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2015.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miettinen P, Auvinen S, Kuusipalo J, Haakana S (2015) Validity of traditional barrier-testing methods to predict the achievable benefits of the new generation water based barrier coatings for packaging materials. In: D3 Professional conference proceedings. PTS coating symposium, Munich, Germany, pp 328–342Google Scholar
  35. Moon RJ, Schueneman GT, Simonsen J (2016) Overview of cellulose nanomaterials, their capabilities and applications. JOM 68:2383–2394.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-016-2018-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nazari B, Kumar V, Bousfield DW, Toivakka M (2016) Rheology of cellulose nanofibers suspensions: boundary driven flow. J Rheol 60:1151–1159.  https://doi.org/10.1122/1.4960336 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nelson K, Retsina T, Iakovlev M, van Heiningen A, Deng Y, Shatkin JA, Mulyadi A (2016) American process: production of low cost nanocellulose for renewable, advanced materials applications. In: Madsen LD, Svedberg EB (eds) Materials research for manufacturing. Springer, Berlin, pp 267–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Osong SH, Norgren S, Engstrand P (2016) Processing of wood-based microfibrillated cellulose and nanofibrillated cellulose, and applications relating to papermaking: a review. Cellulose 23:93–123.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0798-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pan M, Zhou X, Chen M (2013) Cellulose nanowhiskers isolation and properties from acid hydrolysis combined with high pressure homogenization. BioResources 8:933–943.  https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.8.1.933-943 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pereira ALS, do Nascimento DM, Filho Souza, Men de Sá M, Morais JPS, Vasconcelos NF, Feitosa JPA, Brígida AIS, Rosa MDF (2014) Improvement of polyvinyl alcohol properties by adding nanocrystalline cellulose isolated from banana pseudostems. Carbohyd Polym 112:165–172.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.05.090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Plackett DV, Letchford K, Jackson JK, Burt HM (2014) A review of nanocellulose as a novel vehicle for drug delivery. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 29:105–118.  https://doi.org/10.3183/NPPRJ-2014-29-01-p105-118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Samyn P, Barhoum A, Öhlund T, Dufresne A (2018) Review: nanoparticles and nanostructured materials in papermaking. J Mater Sci 53:146–184.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1525-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shafiei-Sabet S, Hamad WY, Hatzikiriakos SG (2012) Rheology of nanocrystalline cellulose aqueous suspensions. Langmuir 28:17124–17133.  https://doi.org/10.1021/la303380v CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Valentini L, Cardinali M, Fortunati E, Torre L, Kenny JM (2013) A novel method to prepare conductive nanocrystalline cellulose/graphene oxide composite films. Mater Lett 105:4–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2013.04.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajesh Koppolu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tiffany Abitbol
    • 2
  • Vinay Kumar
    • 1
    • 4
  • Aayush Kumar Jaiswal
    • 1
  • Agne Swerin
    • 2
    • 3
  • Martti Toivakka
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Paper Coating and Converting, Center for Functional MaterialsÅbo Akademi UniversityTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Bioscience and Materials – Surface, Process and FormulationRISE Research Institutes of SwedenStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Department of ChemistryKTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden
  4. 4.High Performance Fiber ProductsVTT Technical Research Center of Finland Ltd.EspooFinland

Personalised recommendations