, Volume 25, Issue 8, pp 4303–4330 | Cite as

Sugarcane bagasse fiber and its cellulose nanocrystals for polymer reinforcement and heavy metal adsorbent: a review

  • R. Z. Khoo
  • W. S. ChowEmail author
  • H. Ismail
Review Paper


The development of cellulose and nanocellulose based materials have been a subject of intense research in recent decades due to their renewability, high strength and stiffness, as well as environmental friendliness. Advancements in industrial biotechnology provide ample opportunities for economic utilization of cellulosic agro-residues such as sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is an abundant fibrous waste of the sugarcane industry and it is normally used for animal feed, enzymes, paper and biofuel conversion application. Due to its high cellulose content (40–50%), SCB is a good source of cellulose fiber for the synthesis of cellulose nanocrystals. This review reports recent developments, current results and trends in the field of sugarcane bagasse fiber (SCBF) and sugarcane bagasse fiber cellulose nanocrystals (SBFCNC) as a green material in the manufacturing of composite materials and heavy metal adsorbent. Herein, the preparation methods and properties of the SCBF and SBFCNC composites are discussed. The reinforcing abilities of the SCBF and SBFCNC in various polymers are summarized. Also, the potential applications of SBFCNC as heavy metal adsorbent are documented. These demonstrated that we can widen the application of cellulose nanocrystals (synthesized from agriculture waste) while contribute to the sustainable development of the related products.

Graphical abstract


Sugarcane bagasse Cellulose nanocrystals Composite materials Heavy metal adsorbent 



This study was funded by Universiti Sains Malaysia Research University Grant (Grant No. 1001/PBAHAN/8014024).


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering CampusUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia

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