Potential of cellulose paper coated with silver nanoparticles: a benign option for emergency drinking water filter
- 83 Downloads
Point-of-use system is an appropriate choice in emergency situation because this system is efficient, easy to use, and highly portable. The present study aimed to determine the optimal parameter values associated with the preparation of cellulose paper coated with silver nanoparticles using response surface methodology via Box–Behnken Design (BBD) for the purpose of finding the appropriate filter material in point-of-use water purification system. In this case, the efficiency of cellulose paper coated with silver nanoparticles was investigated based on the optimal parameter values and tested using different types of water samples (tapwater, rainwater, and surface water) by taking into account the drinking water guidelines and health risks. Finally, the cellulose paper coated with silver nanoparticles was compared with other point-of-use technologies in determining its suitability during emergency situation. Box Behnken Design results showed that quadratic model was capable of describing the effects of parameters (silver nitrate solutions, sodium borohydride; silver nitrate ratio and immersion time) on the responses (E. coli removal efficiency). Moreover, second order polynomial equations, ANOVA, and three-dimensional surface plots were developed to evaluate the effects of each parameter on E. coli removal efficiency. The findings show that optimal parameters are found in silver nitrate concentration of 0.035 M and sodium borohydride: silver nitrate ratio of 5 with insignificant immersion time. The field testing results show that cellulose papers coated with silver nanoparticle is suitable for low-turbidity water as it meets the drinking water guidelines with low health risks. The comparison with other point-of-use technologies indicated that cellulose paper coated with silver nanoparticle is suitable to be used as a filter to supply clean drinking water in emergency situation.
KeywordsDrinking water Emergency Cellulose paper Silver nanoparticles Box–Behnken Design Performance efficacy
We thank the Ministry of Higher Education (Malaysia) for funding this work under the Prototype Research Grant Scheme. Special thanks and appreciation to Ms. Nurul Atikah Mohd Rosli for her valuable assistance during laboratory analysis.
- Malina D, Sobczak-Kupiec A, Wzorek Z, Kowalski Z (2012) Silver nanoparticles synthesis with different concentrations of Polyvinylpyrrolidone. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 7:1527–1534Google Scholar
- Ministry of Health (2010) Drinking water quality surveillance programme. Engineering Services Division, Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Programme, PutrajayaGoogle Scholar
- Pacioni NL, Borsarelli CD, Rey V, Veglia AV (2015) Silver nanoparticle applications. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
- Preu M, Guyot D, Petz M (1998) Development of a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for the analysis of aminoglycoside antibiotics using experimental design for the optimisation of the derivatisation reactions. J Chromatogr A 818:95–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(98)00537-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Souza AS, Dos Santos WNL, Ferreira SLC (2005) Application of Box–Behnken design in the optimisation of an on-line pre-concentration system using knotted reactor for cadmium determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Spectrochim Acta Part B At Spectrosc 60:737–742. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sab.2005.02.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thirumurugan G, Dhanaraju MD (2012) Silver nanoparticles: real antibacterial bullets. In: Bobbarala (ed) Antimicrobial agents, chapt 20. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp 407–422Google Scholar
- USEPA (2002) Method 1604: total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water by membrane filtration using a simultaneous detection technique (MI Medium). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water, Washington. EPA-821-R-02-024Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (1996) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd edn, vol 2. Health criteria and other supporting informationGoogle Scholar