pp 1–24 | Cite as

Active packaging based on cellulose-chitosan-Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite for storage of clarified butter

  • Robert ApjokEmail author
  • Anca Mihaly Cozmuta
  • Anca Peter
  • Leonard Mihaly Cozmuta
  • Camelia Nicula
  • Monica Baia
  • Adriana Vulpoi
Original Research


Three active cellulose-based papers coated in chitosan (P-CH), chitosan-TiO2 (P-CH-TiO2) and chitosan-Ag/TiO2 (P-CH-Ag/TiO2), respectively were real-time aged for 6 months at 4°C, 55% relative humidity, 15 h light/9 h dark cycle and characterized in relation to plain paper (P). The reduction in the chitosan cristallinity, N-deacetylation of chitosan, degradation of cellulosic fibers and loss in the active agents (proven by SEM, FTIR, EDX techniques and physical-chemical-microbial measurements) occurred during storage explains the deterioration of the barrier and antimicrobial properties of the active papers and subsequently the decrease in their preservation efficiency. Experimental results indicate that after storage for 6 months of the clarified butter the most effective package was P-CH-Ag/TiO2 for which the lowest levels of PV (2.72 mEq O2/kg), yeasts and molds (5.8 CFU/g) and E. coli (6.12 CFU/g) counts were measured. By mathematical modeling of the evolution of the PV, E. coli, yeasts and molds experimental profiles the shelf-life of the clarified butter packed in P, P-CH, P-CH-TiO2 and P-CH-Ag/TiO2 was assessed in respect to their admitted limits to 1.6, 2, 4 and 9.3 months, respectively. At the end of storage the appearance of P-CH-Ag/TiO2 package was clean, without greasy spots, as opposed to that of P, P-CH and P-CH-TiO2, which proves its self-cleaning property.

Graphical Abstract


Clarified butter Active food packaging Paper ageing Chitosan deacetylation Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite Yeasts and molds, E. coli Self-cleaning package 



This study was conducted within the CIIIRO-0010-13-1819, CIII-HR-0306-11-1819 CEEPUS Networks and GRAFOOD Project Financed by UEFISCDI Romania in the M-ERANET 2016 No 72/2017.

Supplementary material

10570_2018_2226_MOESM1_ESM.doc (69 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 69 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Apjok
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anca Mihaly Cozmuta
    • 1
  • Anca Peter
    • 1
  • Leonard Mihaly Cozmuta
    • 1
  • Camelia Nicula
    • 1
  • Monica Baia
    • 2
    • 3
  • Adriana Vulpoi
    • 2
  1. 1.Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, North University Center of Baia MareBaia MareRomania
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-SciencesBabes-Bolyai UniversityCluj-NapocaRomania
  3. 3.Faculty of PhysicsBabes-Bolyai UniversityCluj-NapocaRomania

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