One-pot functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals with various cationic groups
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After successful cationization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) to produce pyridinium-grafted-CNCs, a variety of different cationic CNCs were prepared using a similar procedure, thus unlocking access to a wide variety of cationized cellulose nanocrystals through a simple one-pot reaction. In this study, cationic CNCs were prepared through the use of 4-(1-bromoethyl)benzoic acid or 4-bromomethylbenzoic acid, p-toluenesulfonyl chloride, CNCs, and two different amines, 1-methylimidazole and 4-dimethylaminopyridine. The amines acted as both the base catalyst for the esterification and the nucleophile to form the cationic charge. This method offers a versatile and straightforward route to prepare a variety of different cationic nanocrystals and therefore tailor their interaction with their environment.
KeywordsCellulose nanocrystals Cationization Surface modification One-pot reaction
LJ would like to thank the Malaysian government for a Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Fellowship (mosti/bmi/taji-3/2 jilid). WT, SE and CS thank Research Foundation—Flanders (FWO) for funding under the Odysseus Grant (G.0C60.13N). WT also thanks KU Leuven (Grant OT/14/072), the Engineering and Science Physical Sciences Research Council (ESPRC, Grant EP/J015687/1) and the Province of West-Vlaanderen (Provincial Chair in Advanced Materials) for financial support. HVG and SDF acknowledge support by KU Leuven internal funds.
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