, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 2487–2500 | Cite as

Nanofibrillated cellulose/nanographite composite films

  • Sinke H. OsongEmail author
  • Christina Dahlström
  • Sven Forsberg
  • Britta Andres
  • Per Engstrand
  • Sven Norgren
  • Ann-Christine Engström
Original Paper


Though research into nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has recently increased, few studies have considered co-utilising NFC and nanographite (NG) in composite films, and, it has, however been a challenge to use high-yield pulp fibres (mechanical pulps) to produce this nanofibrillar material. It is worth noting that there is a significant difference between chemical pulp fibres and high-yield pulp fibres, as the former is composed mainly of cellulose and has a yield of approximately 50 % while the latter is consist of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, and has a yield of approximately 90 %. NFC was produced by combining TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethypiperidine-1-oxyl)-mediated oxidation with the mechanical shearing of chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) and sulphite pulp (SP); the NG was produced by mechanically exfoliating graphite. The different NaClO dosages in the TEMPO system differently oxidised the fibres, altering their fibrillation efficiency. NFC–NG films were produced by casting in a Petri dish. We examine the effect of NG on the sheet-resistance and mechanical properties of NFC films. Addition of 10 wt% NG to 90 wt% NFC of sample CC2 (5 mmol NaClO CTMP-NFC homogenised for 60 min) improved the sheet resistance, i.e. from that of an insulating pure NFC film to 180 Ω/sq. Further addition of 20 (CC3) and 25 wt% (CC4) of NG to 80 and 75 wt% respectively, lowered the sheet resistance to 17 and 9 Ω/sq, respectively. For the mechanical properties, we found that adding 10 wt% NG to 90 wt% NFC of sample HH2 (5 mmol NaClO SP-NFC homogenised for 60 min) improved the tensile index by 28 %, tensile stiffness index by 20 %, and peak load by 28 %. The film’s surface morphology was visualised using scanning electron microscopy, revealing the fibrillated structure of NFC and NG. This methodology yields NFC–NG films that are mechanically stable, bendable, and flexible.


Nanofibrillated cellulose Nanographite Nanocomposites TEMPO High-speed homogenisation 



This work was financially supported by the KK Foundation in collaboration with MoRe Research and Mid Sweden University as part of the programme Forest as a Resource Industrial Research College (FORIC) at Mid Sweden University.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sinke H. Osong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christina Dahlström
    • 1
  • Sven Forsberg
    • 2
  • Britta Andres
    • 2
  • Per Engstrand
    • 1
  • Sven Norgren
    • 1
  • Ann-Christine Engström
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringMid Sweden UniversitySundsvallSweden
  2. 2.Department of Natural SciencesMid Sweden UniversitySundsvallSweden

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