, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 3673–3688 | Cite as

Nanocellulose from green algae modulates the in vitro inflammatory response of monocytes/macrophages

  • Kai Hua
  • Maria Strømme
  • Albert Mihranyan
  • Natalia FerrazEmail author
Original Paper


The response of monocytes and macrophages to functionalized Cladophora nanocellulose (CC) films was evaluated. Carboxyl-CC and hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium-CC [referred to as anionic-CC (a-CC) and cationic-CC (c-CC), respectively] were synthesized by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride condensation of unmodified CC (u-CC). The cell response to u-CC, a-CC and c-CC of untreated and phorbol 12-myristate-13 acetate treated THP-1 cells, i.e. monocytes and macrophages, in the presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied. u-CC impairs the viability of THP-1 monocytes and macrophages most probably due to the presence of impurities. In the absence of LPS, the functionalized materials behave as inert materials in terms of the inflammatory response of both monocytes and differentiated macrophages. Under pro-inflammatory stimuli the functionalized CC films suppressed the inflammatory response induced by LPS. The a-CC material with its aggregated, aligned fibre structure caused a more pronounced reduction of TNF-α levels compared to the c-CC film that exhibited non-aggregated, randomly oriented fibres. These results push forward the option of using functionalized CC materials in the biomedical field.


Cladophora nanocellulose Biocompatibility Inflammation Monocytes/macrophages 



The cell studies were performed at the BioMat platform, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University. FORMAS, The Bo Rydin Foundation and The Olle Engkvist Byggmästare Foundation are gratefully acknowledged for their financial support. K.H. thanks the China Scholarship Council (CSC) for financial support. A.M. is a Wallenberg Academy Fellow and thanks the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation for their continued support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai Hua
    • 1
  • Maria Strømme
    • 1
  • Albert Mihranyan
    • 1
  • Natalia Ferraz
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering SciencesUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

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