, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 3645–3655 | Cite as

Assembly of metal nanoparticles on regenerated fibers from wood sawdust and de-inked pulp: flexible substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications

  • Xian-Ming KongEmail author
  • Mehedi Reza
  • Yi-Bo Ma
  • Juan-P. Hinestroza
  • Esko Ahvenniemi
  • Tapani Vuorinen
Original Paper


We report on simple and low-cost active SERS substrates made using regenerated fibers from wood products. Glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTAC) was used to graft ammonium groups on the fibers’ surfaces under strong alkaline conditions. After GTAC treatment, citrate-stabilized nanoparticles were assembled via electrostatic interaction. X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy images and optical photographs indicated that the surfaces of the fibers were conformally coated with metal nanoparticles. We also observed that after being cationized, the fibers experienced significant swelling and shrinking under dry and wet conditions. Rhodamine 6G was used as probe molecule to test the SERS performance of the substrates- concentrations as low as 10−9 M were detected. Furthermore, the modified fibers were used to detect melamine, illustrating their potential as viable substrates for applications such as markers for the quality and shelf-life of food products and detection of toxins.


Regenerated fibers Wood sawdust De-inked pulp Ag nanoparticles Flexible substrates SERS 



Ms. Rita Hatakka is gratefully acknowledged for her assistance with the experimental work.

Supplementary material

10570_2015_743_MOESM1_ESM.doc (2.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 2450 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (MPG 7573 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xian-Ming Kong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mehedi Reza
    • 2
  • Yi-Bo Ma
    • 1
  • Juan-P. Hinestroza
    • 3
  • Esko Ahvenniemi
    • 4
  • Tapani Vuorinen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical TechnologyAalto UniversityAaltoFinland
  2. 2.Department of Applied PhysicsAalto UniversityAaltoFinland
  3. 3.Department of Fiber Science and Apparel DesignCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical TechnologyAalto UniversityAaltoFinland

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