Production of hydroxyapatite–bacterial cellulose nanocomposites from agroindustrial wastes
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In the present work, bionanocomposites based on bacterial cellulose (BC) obtained from alternative sources (cashew juice and sisal liquid waste) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were developed. BC–HA composites were prepared through alternate immersion in CaCl2 and Na2HPO4 solutions. Cellulose was successfully produced from the alternative sources of media without the need for additional supplementation and HA crystals that homogeneously precipitated onto the BC surface. The Ca/P ratio ranged from 1.53 to 1.58, indicating the presence of calcium-deficient HA in the composites; this is a phase similar to biological apatite. After immersion into synthetic body fluid, the HA layer formed on the surface of pure BC and the composites, attesting the material’s bioactivity. Moreover, apatite deposition on the composites was up to three times higher than observed on pure cellulose with no significant desorption of apatite from the composites. These results support that the BC derived from agroindustrial wastes have potential to produce nanocomposites of cellulose/HA for use in bone tissue regeneration.
KeywordsAgave sisalana Anacardium occidentale In vitro test Agribusiness Nanotechnology
The authors are thankful to the Brazilian Research Agency EMBRAPA and the following laboratories from Federal University of Ceará (UFC): Laboratory of Biomaterials, Laboratory of Characterization of Materials (LACAM), X-rays Laboratory, and Laboratory of Bioinorganic. This research was financially supported by the following fellowships: Fundação Cearense de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (FUNCAP, Brazil), and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brazil).
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