, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 2993–3001 | Cite as

A 3D in-situ investigation of the deformation in compressive loading in the thickness direction of cellulose fiber mats

  • Thomas Joffre
  • Orlando Girlanda
  • Fredrik Forsberg
  • Fredrik Sahlén
  • Mikael Sjödahl
  • E. Kristofer Gamstedt
Original Paper


Fiber mat materials based on cellulose natural fibers combines a useful set of properties, including renewability, stiffness, strength and dielectric insulation, etc. The dominant in-plane fiber orientation ensures the in-plane performance, at the expense of reduced out-of-plane behavior, which has not been studied as extensively as the in-plane behavior. Quantitative use of X-ray micro-computed tomography and strain analyses under in-situ loading open up possibilities to identify key mechanisms responsible for deformation. In the present investigation, focus is placed on the out-of-plane deformation under compressive loading of thick, high density paper, known as pressboard. The samples were compressed in the chamber of a microtomographic scanner. 3D images were captured before and after the loading the sample. From sequential 3D images, the strain field inside the material was calculated using digital volume correlation. Two different test pieces were tested, namely unpolished and surface polished ones. The first principal strain component of the strain tensor showed a significant correlation with the density variation in the material, in particular on the top and bottom surfaces of unpolished samples. The manufacturing-induced grooves generate inhomogeneities in the microstructure of the surface, thus creating high strain concentration zones which give a sensible contribution to the overall compliance of the unpolished material. More generally, the results reveal that, on the micrometer scale, high density fiber pressboard behaves as a porous material rather than a low density fiber network.


X-ray microtomography Digital volume correlation Cellulosic fibers Deformation 



The authors wish to thank Ångström Materials Academy for facilitating collaboration and financial support of this project. Dr. Kun Wei, ABB Corporate Research, is acknowledged for able help in scanning electron microscopy. The DVC implementation and analysis at Luleå University of Technology were carried out with financial support from the Swedish Research Council (VR).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Joffre
    • 1
  • Orlando Girlanda
    • 2
  • Fredrik Forsberg
    • 3
  • Fredrik Sahlén
    • 2
  • Mikael Sjödahl
    • 3
  • E. Kristofer Gamstedt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Engineering SciencesUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.ABB Corporate ResearchVästeråsSweden
  3. 3.Division of Fluid and Experimental MechanicsLuleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden

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