, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 1485–1493 | Cite as

Alternative hydrogen bond models of cellulose II and IIII based on molecular force-fields and density functional theory

  • Pan Chen
  • Yu Ogawa
  • Yoshiharu NishiyamaEmail author
  • Malin Bergenstråhle-Wohlert
  • Karim Mazeau
Original Paper


Alternative hydrogen-bond structures were found for cellulose II and IIII based on molecular dynamics simulations using four force fields and energy optimization based on density functional theory. All the modeling results were in support to the new hydrogen-bonding network. The revised structures of cellulose II and IIII differ with the fiber diffraction models mainly in the orientation of two hydroxyl groups, namely, OH2 and OH6 forming hydrogen-bond chains perpendicular to the cellulose molecule. In the alternative structures, the sense of hydrogen bond is inversed but little difference can be seen in hydrogen bond geometries. The preference of these alternative hydrogen bond structures comes from the local stabilization of hydroxyl groups with respect to the β carbon. On the other hand when simulated fiber diffraction patterns were compared with experimental ones, the current structure of cellulose II with higher energy and the alternative structure of cellulose IIII with lower energy were in better agreement.


Molecular dynamics Force-field Density functional theory Neutron diffraction Hydrogen bond 



We thank Dr. Jakob Wohlert for discussion and providing GLYCAM 06 and CHARMM C36 force field parameters in GROMACS format. P. C. thanks funding support from Chinese government to study in France. Y. O. was supported by a Grant-in-aid for JSPS research fellow (23-2362). M. B. W. Thanks the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) for financial support.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 5 (DOCX 895 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pan Chen
    • 1
  • Yu Ogawa
    • 2
  • Yoshiharu Nishiyama
    • 3
    Email author
  • Malin Bergenstråhle-Wohlert
    • 4
  • Karim Mazeau
    • 3
  1. 1.AICES Graduate School and MST-AVTRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  2. 2.CERMAVUniversity Grenoble AlpesGrenobleFrance
  3. 3.CERMAVCNRSGrenobleFrance
  4. 4.Wallenberg Wood Science CenterRoyal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

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