, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp 3951–3963 | Cite as

Structure characterization of native cellulose during dehydration and rehydration

  • Lin Fang
  • Jeffrey M. Catchmark
Original Paper


The goal of this study is to investigate the hydration and dehydration induced structural changes of native cellulose. Never dried cotton, and never dried bacterial cellulose with and without added matrix polymer xyloglucan, are examined under the influence of dehydration and rehydration. Significant crystal structure changes were observed in the later stage of drying for both cotton and bacterial cellulose (BC). The 1 % lateral expansion in glucan chain spacing and 17 % decrease of calculated Scherrer dimension were detected for cotton due to the distortion of the structure possibly caused by mechanical stresses associated with drying. No detectable changes on average glucan chain spacings were observed for large BC crystals. However, an average width decrease by 4.4 nm was discovered in the (010) direction, which was more significant than that observed in the (100) and (110) directions. It is hypothesized that co-crystallized elementary fibrils preferentially disassociate along the (010) plane resulting in a significant reduction of crystal width. In the BC-xyloglucan model composite, the presence of xyloglucan does not interfere with the dehydration behavior. Rehydration leads to some structural changes but to a lesser extent than the initial drying. High temperature dehydration induced deformation and crystal size changes are found to be non-reversible due to the removal of the last hydration layer on the cellulose surface.


Cellulose Bound water X-ray diffraction Dehydration Crystal structure Co-crystallization 



This work was supported by The Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, and Office of Basic Energy Sciences under award number DE-SC0001090.We acknowledge Nicole Wonderling from the Materials Research Institute of the Pennsylvania State University for her assistant with XRD measurement and Candace Haigler from North Carolina State University for supplying the never dried cotton samples.

Supplementary material

10570_2014_435_MOESM1_ESM.doc (2.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 2475 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Biological EngineeringThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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