, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 1945–1955 | Cite as

Anionic cellulose beads for drug encapsulation and release

  • Jani TryggEmail author
  • Emrah Yildir
  • Ruzica Kolakovic
  • Niklas Sandler
  • Pedro Fardim
Original Paper


Cellulose beads were prepared from water-based solvent and oxidised by modified Anelli’s reaction at 20–\(80\,^\circ \hbox {C}\) for 2–48 h (Fig. 1). The maximum amount of anionic groups (AGs) was \(1.85\,\hbox {mmol}\,\hbox {g}^{-1}\). The distribution of AGs was verified by absorption of cationic dyes and imaging with confocal fluorescent microscopy. Structural changes were studied spectroscopically and with electron microscopy. Oxidation of the beads drastically increased the swelling capacity of air-dried beads. Uptake of model drug was more than doubled in never-dried beads. This is due to the changes in pore size distribution, mainly opening and widening of the closed pores and narrow cavities. Release profiles of the drug were studied at physiological pH of 7.4 and showed a controlled release rate independently of the amount of the drug encapsulated and amount of AGs.


TEMPO oxidation Cellulose beads Microsphere Drug delivery 



This work is part of Future Biorefine (FuBio) Cellulose, funded by TEKES and coordinated by Finnish Bioeconomy Cluster (FiBiC). We would also like to acknowledge the department of biology in Åbo Akademi for the fluorescent microscopy measurements.

Supplementary material

10570_2014_253_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (223 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (f 223 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jani Trygg
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emrah Yildir
    • 2
  • Ruzica Kolakovic
    • 2
  • Niklas Sandler
    • 2
  • Pedro Fardim
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose TechnologyÅbo AkademiTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Laboratory of Pharmaceutical SciencesÅbo Akademi UniversityTurkuFinland

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