, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 2157–2166 | Cite as

Optimization of oxalic acid pretreatment of moso bamboo for textile fiber using response surface methodology

  • Bo Hong
  • Linzheng Chen
  • Guoxin Xue
  • Qin Xie
  • Fang Chen
Original Paper


In this article, samples of moso bamboo were pretreated with oxalic acid under various process conditions. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the pretreatment conditions. A three-variable quadratic polynomial regression model was obtained to predict the cellulose content, lignin removal and hemicellulose solubilization. The reliability of the model was also evaluated by the key elements obtained from analysis of variance of the coefficients. The surface response plot and contour plot of the effects were studied to further examine the interactions of the three factors and determine the optimum levels of each factor. Finally, the optimized conditions for oxalic acid pretreatment were temperature 178.4 °C, 3.68 % oxalic acid and 28.4 min, respectively. The maximum predicted value of cellulose content in the residue fraction was 64.98 %, along with 79.43 % lignin removal and 96.71 % hemicellulose solubilization after the oxalic acid pretreatment.


Oxalic acid Pretreatment Response surface methodology Optimization Moso bamboo 


  1. Adsul MG, Ghule JE, Shaikh H, Singh R, Bastawde KB, Gokhale DV, Varma J (2005) Enzymatic hydrolysis of delignified bagasse polysaccharides. Carbohydr Polym 62:6–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajoy K, Sarkar SA (2009) Single bath process for imparting antimicrobial activity and ultraviolet protective property to bamboo viscose fabric. Cellulose. doi:10.1007/s10570-009-9299-8 Google Scholar
  3. Amada S, IchikawaY Munekata T, Nagase Y, Shimizu H (1997) Fibre texture and mechanical graded structure of bamboo. Compos B Eng 28B:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arvaniti E, Belinda BA, Schmidt JE (2012) Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production. Bioresour Technol 39:94–105Google Scholar
  5. Cao S, Pu Y, Studer M, Wyman CL, Ragauskas AJ (2012) Chemical transformations of Populus trichocarpa during dilute acid pretreatment. RSC Adv 2:10925–10936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Duguid KB, Montross MD, Radtke CW, Rofcheck CL, Wendt LM, Shearer SA (2009) Effect of anatomical fractionation on the enzymatic hydrolysis of acid and alkaline pretreated corn stover. Bioresour Technol 100:5189–5195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gritsch CS, Kleist G, Murphy RJ (2004) Developmental changes in cell wall structure of phloem fibers of the bamboo Dendrocalamus asper. Ann Bot 94:497–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hogan F, Mormede S, Clark P, Crane M (2004) Ultrasound sludge treatment for enhanced anaerobic digestion. Water Sci Technol 50:25–32Google Scholar
  9. Hong B, Xue G, Weng L, Guo X (2012) Pretreatment of MB with dilute phosphoric acid. BioResources 7:4902–4913Google Scholar
  10. Hong B, Xue G, Guo X, Weng L (2013) Kinetic study of oxalic acid pretreatment of moso bamboo for textile fiber. Cellulose. doi:10.1007/s10570-013-9879-5 Google Scholar
  11. Jung ML, Hasan J, Richard AV (2010) A comparison of the autohydrolysis and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatments on the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of coastal Bermuda grass. Bioresour Technol 101:5449–5458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kelly M, Brinsko MS (2010) Optical characterization of some modern ‘eco-friendly’ fibers. J Forensic Sci 55:915–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kenealy W, Horn E, Houtman C (2007) Vapor-phase diethyl oxalate pretreatment of wood chips: part 1. Energy savings and improved pulps. Holzforschung 61:223–229Google Scholar
  14. Kootstra MJ, Beeftink HH, Scott EL, Sanders JPM (2009) Comparison of dilute mineral and organic acid pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. Biochem Eng J 46:126–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lavarack B, Griffin GJ, Rodman D (2002) The acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose to produce xylose, arabinose, glucose and other products. Biomass Bioenergy 23:367–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee JW, Rodrigues RCLB, Kim HJ, Choi IG, Jeffries TW (2010) The roles of xylan and lignin in oxalic acid pretreated corncob during separate enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. Bioresour Technol 101:4379–4385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu CZ, Cheng XY (2009) Microwave-assisted acid pretreatment for enhancing biogas production from herbal-extraction process residue. Energy Fuels 23:6152–6155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lu Y, Mosier N (2007) Biomimetic catalysis for hemicellulose hydrolysis in corn stover. Biotechnol Prog 23:116–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mosier NS, Sarikaya A, Ladisch CM, Ladisch MR (2001) Characterization of dicarboxylic acids for cellulose hydrolysis. Biotechnol Prog 17:474–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Neureiter M, Danner H, Thomasser C, Saidi B, Braun R (2002) Dilute acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at varying conditions. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 49:98–100Google Scholar
  21. Scordia D, Cosentino SL, Lee JW, Jeffries TW (2011) Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for biorefining giant reed (Arundo donax L.). Biomass Bioenergy 35:3018–3024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shao S, Wen G, Jin Z (2008) Changes in chemical characteristics of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) components during steam explosion. Wood Sci Technol 42:439–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Talebnia F, Karakashev D, Angelidaki I (2009) Production of bioethanol from wheat straw: an overview on pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Bioresour Technol 101:4744–4753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Torget RW, Kim JS, Lee YY (2000) Fundamental aspects of dilute acid hydrolysis/fractionation kinetics of hardwood carbohydrates. 1. Cellulose hydrolysis. Ind Eng Chem Res 39:2817–2825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vanderghem C, Brostaux Y, Jacquet N, Blecker C, Paquot M (2012) Optimization of formic/acetic acid delignification of Miscanthus×giganteus for enzymatic hydrolysis using response surface methodology. Ind Crops Prod 35:280–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang YP, Wang G (2010) Structures of bamboo fiber for textiles. Text Res J 80:334–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang J, Yue ZB, Chen TH, Peng SC, Yu H (2010) Anaerobic digestibility and fiber composition of bulrush in response to steam explosion. Bioresour Technol 101:6610–6614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang YZ, Fu XG, Chen HZ (2012) Pretreatment based on two-step steam explosion combined with an intermediate separation of fiber cells-optimization of fermentation of corn straw hydrolysates. Bioresour Technol 121:100–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhao H, Kwak J, Zhang ZC, Brown HM, Arey BW, Holladay JE (2007) Studying cellulose fiber structure by SEM, XRD, NMR and acid hydrolysis. Carbohydr Polym 68:235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zheng M, Li X, Li L, Yang X, He Y (2009) Enhancing anaerobic biogasification of corn stover through wet state NaOH pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 100:5140–5145CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bo Hong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Linzheng Chen
    • 1
  • Guoxin Xue
    • 1
  • Qin Xie
    • 1
  • Fang Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.Zhejiang Sci-Tech UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Zhejiang Institute of CommunicationsHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations