, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 2191–2219 | Cite as

Biosynthesis, production and applications of bacterial cellulose

  • Shin-Ping Lin
  • Iris Loira Calvar
  • Jeffrey M. Catchmark
  • Je-Ruei Liu
  • Ali Demirci
  • Kuan-Chen Cheng
Review Paper


Bacterial cellulose (BC) as a never-dried biopolymer synthesized in abundance by Gluconacetobacter xylinus is in a pure form which requires no intensive processing to remove unwanted impurities and contaminants such as lignin, pectin and hemicellulose. In contrast to plant cellulose, BC, with several remarkable physical properties, can be grown to any desired shape and structure to meet the needs of different applications. BC has been commercialized as diet foods, filtration membranes, paper additives, and wound dressings. This review article presents an overview of BC structure, biosynthesis, applications, state-of-the-art advances in enhancing BC production, and its material properties through the investigations of genetic regulations, fermentation parameters, and bioreactor design. In addition, future prospects on its applications through chemical modification as a new biologically active derivative will be discussed.


Gluconacetobacter xylinus Biosynthesis Bacterial cellulose Cellulose modification Cellulose production Cellulose application 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shin-Ping Lin
    • 1
  • Iris Loira Calvar
    • 2
  • Jeffrey M. Catchmark
    • 3
    • 4
  • Je-Ruei Liu
    • 1
  • Ali Demirci
    • 3
  • Kuan-Chen Cheng
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute of BiotechnologyNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Food Technology Department, Higher Technical School of Agricultural EngineeringTechnical University of MadridMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural and Biological EngineeringThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  4. 4.Center for NanoCellulosicsThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  5. 5.Graduate Institute of Food Science TechnologyNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

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