Sugarcane bagasse cellulose fibres and their hydrous niobium phosphate composites: synthesis and characterization by XPS, XRD and SEM
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Cellulose fibres obtained from sugarcane bagasse were submitted to a purification process, which consisted of an acid hydrolysis for elimination of the major part of lignin and hemicellulose. This was followed by a delignification process carried out in two steps to yield crude cellulose (CCell) fibres in the first one and with a subsequent bleaching in order to yield bleached cellulose fibres (BCell). Composites of crude and bleached cellulose fibres with hydrous niobium phosphate, cell/NbOPO4·nH2O, were subsequently synthesized. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction characterization of the obtained materials showed CCell/NbOPO4·nH2O and BCell/NbOPO4·nH2O are real composites. The nature of the cellulose (CCell or BCell) has an important role on the composites obtained, namely on the niobium salt composition at the composite surface. The synthesis of membranes of both cellulose and mixed matrix cellulose/NbOPO4·nH2O was only possible when the bleached cellulose was used.
KeywordsBleaching Cellulose Morphology XPS XRD SEM
The authors acknowledge the financial support from Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) as well as the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal.
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