Advertisement

Cellulose

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 1115–1123 | Cite as

TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber films: effect of surface morphology on water resistance

  • Galina Rodionova
  • Øyvind Eriksen
  • Øyvind Gregersen
Original Paper

Abstract

2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibers were prepared from two kraft pulps (Norway spruce and mixed eucalyptus) using the TEMPO/NaBr/NaClO system at pH 10 and 22 °C. After reaction and mechanical treatment, the TEMPO-oxidized celluloses were used for preparation of self-standing films and coatings of laminate films on 50-μm-thick polyethylene terephthalate films. Characterization of the films was performed based on water contact angle measurements, laser profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The purpose of this study is to understand how the measured contact angles are affected by the film’s physical properties (morphology, thickness, density, and roughness).

Keywords

TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers Films Surface morphology Thickness Contact angle 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Per Olav Johnsen for acquisition of FESEM images, Professor Torbjørn Helle for linguistic help, and project partners in the SustainBarrier project at PFI for financial support.

References

  1. Bee T, Cross E, Dias A, Lee K-W, Shoichet M, McCarthy T (1992) Control of wettability of polymers using organic surface chemistry. J Adhes Sci Technol 6:719–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bragd P, van Bekkum H, Besemer A (2004) TEMPO-mediated oxidation of polysaccharides: survey of methods and applications. Top Catal 27:49–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cassie A, Baxter S (1944) Wettability of porous surfaces. Trans Faraday Soc 40:546–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chinga G, Johnssen P, Dougherty R, Lunden-Berli E, Walter J (2007) Quantification of the 3-D micro-structure of SC surfaces. J Microsc Oxford 27(3):254–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chinga-Carrasco G, Syverud K (2010) Computer-assisted quantification of the multi-scale structure of films made of nanofibrillated cellulose. J Nanopart Res 12:841–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chinga-Carrasco G, Yu Y, Diserud O (2011) Quantitative electron microscopy of cellulose nanofibril structures from Eucalyptus and Pinus radiate kraft pulp fibers. Microsc Microanal 11:1–9Google Scholar
  7. Ek M (2009) Paper chemistry and technology, vol 3. de Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  8. Erbil H (2006) Surface chemistry of solid and liquid interfaces. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  9. Fukuzumi H, Saito T, Iwata T, Kumamoto Y, Isogai A (2009) Transparent and high gas barrier films of cellulose nanofibers prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation. Biomacromolecules 10:162–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Henriksson M, Henriksson G, Berglund L, Lindström T (2007) An environmentally friendly method for enzyme-assisted preparation of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) nanofibers. Eur Polym J 43:3434–3441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Karabulut E, Wågberg L (2011) Design and characterization of cellulose nanofibril-based freestanding films prepared by layer-by-layer deposition technique. Soft Matter 7:3467–3474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Minelli M, Baschetti M, Doghieri F, Ankerfors M, Lindström T, Sirό I, Plackett D (2010) Investigation of mass transport properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) films. J Membrane Sci 358:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mittal K (2009) Contact angle, wettability and adhesion, vol 6. Leiden, BostonGoogle Scholar
  14. Moutinho I, Figueiredo M, Ferreira P (2007) Evaluating the surface energy of laboratory-made paper sheets by contact angle measurements. Tappi J 6:26–32Google Scholar
  15. Pääkkö M, Ankerfors M, Kosonen H, Nykänen A, Ahola S, Östenberg M, Ruokolainen J, Laine J, Larsson P, Ikkala O, Lindström T (2007) Enzymatic hydrolysis combined with mechanical shearing and high-pressure homogenization for nanoscale cellulose fibrils and strong gels. Biomacromolecules 8:1934–1941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Papakonstantinou D, Amanatides E, Mataras D, Ioannidis V, Nikolopoulos P (2007) Improved surface energy analysis for plasma treated PET films. Plasma Process Polym 4:1057–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rasband W (1997) ImageJ. U.S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda. http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij
  18. Ryan B, Poduska K (2008) Roughness effects on contact angle measurements. Am J Phys 76:1074–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Saito T, Nishiyama Y, Putaux J, Vignon M, Isogai A (2006) Homogeneous suspensions of individualized microfibrils from TEMPO-catalyzed oxidation of native cellulose. Biomacromolecules 7:1687–1691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Saito T, Kimura S, Nishiyama Y, Isogai A (2007) Cellulose nanofibers prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation of native cellulose. Biomacromolecules 8:2485–2491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Spence K, Venditti R, Rojas O, Habibi Y, Pawlak J (2010) The effect of chemical composition on microfibrillar cellulose films from wood pulps: water interactions and physical properties for packaging applications. Cellulose 17:835–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Syverud K, Xhanari K, Chinga-Carrasco G, Yu Y, Stenius P (2011) Films made of cellulose nanofibrils: surface modification by adsorption of a cationic surfactant and characterization by computer-assisted electron microscopy. J Nanopart Res 13:773–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Taniguchi T (1998) New films produced from microfibrillated natural fibers. Polym Int 47:291–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Turbak A, Snyder F, Sandberg K (1983) Microfibrillated cellulose, a new cellulose product: Properties, uses, and commercial potential. J Appl Polym Sci Appl Polym Symp 37:813Google Scholar
  25. Wågberg L, Decher G, Norgren M, Lindström T, Ankerfors M, Axnäs K (2008) The build-up of polyelectrolyte multilayers of microfibrillated cellulose and cationic polyelectrolytes. Langmuir 24:784–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhang C, Wang L, Zhao J, Zhu P (2011) Effect of drying methods on structure and mechanical properties of bacterial cellulose films. Adv Mater Res 239–242:2667–2670Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Galina Rodionova
    • 1
    • 2
  • Øyvind Eriksen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Øyvind Gregersen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Paper and Fibre Research InstituteTrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations