Cellulose

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 127–134 | Cite as

Surface chemical modification of microfibrillated cellulose: improvement of barrier properties for packaging applications

  • Galina Rodionova
  • Marianne Lenes
  • Øyvind Eriksen
  • Øyvind Gregersen
Article

Abstract

Heterogeneous acetylation of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was carried out to modify its physical properties and at the same time to preserve the morphology of cellulose fibrils. The overall reaction success was assessed by FTIR together with the degree of substitution (DS) defined by titration and the degree of surface substitution (DSS) evaluated by means of XPS. Dynamic contact angle measurements confirmed the hydrophobicity improvement relative to non-modified samples. The increase of contact angle upon reaching a certain reaction time and some decrease following the further acetylation was confirmed. Mechanical properties of MFC films made from chemically modified material were evaluated using tensile strength tests which showed no significant reduction of tensile strength. According to SEM images, dimension analysis and tensile strength data, the acetylation seemed not to affect the morphology of cellulose fibrils.

Keywords

Heterogeneous acetylation Acetic anhydride (AA) Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) Hydrophobicity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Leena-Sisko Johansson for assistance with XPS measurement, Dr. Gary Chinga Carrasco for help with analysis of SEM images, Bård Helge Hoff for valuable discussions and Prof. Torbjørn Helle for linguistic help and project partners in SustainBarrier project at PFI for the financial support.

References

  1. Abdelmouleh M, Boufi S, Belgacem MN, Duarte AP, Ben Salah A, Gandini A (2004) Modification of cellulosic fibres with functionalized silanes:development of surface properties. Int J Adhes Adhes 24:43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aulin C, Ahola S, Josefsson P, Nishino T, Hirose Y, Österberg M, Wågberg L (2009) Nanoscale cellulose films with different crystallinities and mesostructures—Their surface properties and interaction with water. Langmuir 13:7675–7685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Favier V, Canova GR, Cavaillé JY, Chanzy H, Dufresne A, Gauthier C (1994) Nanocomposite materials from latex and cellulose whiskers. Polym Adv Technol 6:351–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fellers C, Norman B (1996) Pappersteknik. Avdelingen för Pappersteknik, Kungl Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, TABS-Tryckeri AB i Smäland, p 292Google Scholar
  5. Freire CSR, Silvestre AJD, Pascoal Neto C, Belgacem MN, Gandini A (2006) Controlled heterogeneous modification of cellulose fibers with fatty acids: effect of reaction conditions on the extent of esterification and fiber properties. J Appl Polym Sci 100:1093–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hayashi J (1989) Acylation of cellulose with carboxylic acids. Cellul Chem Technol 23:661–670Google Scholar
  7. Heinze Th, Liebert T, Koschella A (2006) Esterification of polisaccharides. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  8. Klemm D, Schumann D, Kramer F, Heßler N, Koth D, Sultanova B (2009) Nanocellulose materials—different cellulose, different functionality. Macrom Symp 280:60–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ljungberg N, Bonini C, Bortolussi F, Boisson C, Heux L, Cavaill (2005) New nanocomposite materials reinforced with cellulose whiskers in atactic polypropylene: effect of surface and dispersion characteristics. Biomacromolecules 6:2732–2739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lu J, Askeland P, Drzal LT (2008) Surface modification of microfibrillated cellulose for epoxy composite applications. Polymer 49:1285–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Malm CJ, Mench JW, Kendall DL, Hiatt GD (1951) Aliphatic acid esters of cellulose. Preparation by acid chloride-pyridine procedure. Ind Eng Chem 43:684–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nakagaito AN, Yano H (2005) Novel high-strength biocomposites based on microfibrillated cellulose having nano-order-unit web-like network structure. Appl Phys A 80:155–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Orts WJ, Shey J, Imam SH, Glenn GM, Guttman ME, Revol J-F (2005) Application of cellulose microfibrils in polymer nanocomposites. J Polym Environ 13:301–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Panaitescu DM, Vuluga DM, Paven H, Iorga MD, Ghiurea M, Matasaru I, Nechita P (2008) Properties of polymer composites with cellulose microfibrils. Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 47:1228–1234Google Scholar
  15. Parry RT (1993) Principles and applications of modified atmosphere packaging of foods. Chapman & Hall, SuffolkGoogle Scholar
  16. Paunikallio T, Suvanto M, Pakkanen TT (2006) Viscose fiber/polyamide 12 composites: novel gas-phase method for the modification of cellulose fibers with an aminosilane coupling agent. J Appl Polym Sci 102:4478–4483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rasband WS (1997) ImageJ, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/
  18. Shirley K, Yu T, Green JB (1989) Determination of total hydroxyls and carboxyls derivatization by infrared spectroscopy. Anal Chem 61:1260–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shogren R (1997) Water vapour permeability of biodegradable polymers. J Environ Polym Degr 5:91–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Syverud K, Stenius P (2009) Strength and barrier properties of MFC films. Cellulose 16:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Syverud K, Xhanari K, Chinga-Carrasco G, Yu Y, Stenius P (2009) Films made of cellulose nanofibrils—surface modification by adsorption of a cationic surfactant and characterisation by computer-assisted electron microscopy. Submitted to J Nanoparticle ResearchGoogle Scholar
  22. Thiebaud S, Borredon ME (1995) Solvent-free wood esterification with fatty acid chlorides. Bioresour Technol 52:169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tserki V, Zafeiropoulos NE, Simon F, Panayiotou C (2005) A study of the effect of acetylation and propionylation surface treatments on natural fibres. Composites part A 36:1110–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tuil RV et al. (2000) In: Weber CJ (ed) Biobased packaging materials for the food industry—status and perspectives. KVL, Cohephagen, pp 27–32Google Scholar
  25. Wang S, Cheng Q, Rials TG and Lee S-H (2006) Cellulose microfibril/nanofibril and its nanocompsites. Proceedings of the 8th Pacific rim bio-based composites symposiumGoogle Scholar
  26. Yuan H, Nishiyama Y, Kuga S (2005) Surface esterification of cellulose by vapour-phase treatment with trifluoroacetic anhydride. Cellulose 12:543–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zimmermann T, Pohler E, Geiger T (2004) Cellulose fibrils for polymer reinforcement. Adv Eng Mater 6:754–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Galina Rodionova
    • 1
  • Marianne Lenes
    • 2
  • Øyvind Eriksen
    • 2
  • Øyvind Gregersen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Paper and Fibre Research InstituteTrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations